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    Frequent consumption of vegetables predicts lower risk of depression in older Taiwanese – results of a prospective population-based study.

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    [[abstract]]Objective The study evaluated the association between consumption frequencies of the major food categories and the risk of new depression four years later in older Taiwanese. Design A prospective cohort study with multistage random sampling. Logistic regression analysis evaluated the significance of the longitudinal associations of intake frequencies of the major food categories with future (4 years later) risk of new depression, controlled for possible confounding factors with or without adjustment for cognitive status. Setting Population-based free-living elderly. Subjects Men and women (n 1609) ≥65 years of age. Results In a regression model that controlled for demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease/health-related variables but not cognitive status, both fruits (OR = 0·66, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·98, P = 0·038) and vegetables (OR = 0·38, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·86, P = 0·021) were protective against depressive symptoms 4 years later. However, when the same regression model was also adjusted for cognitive status, only vegetables (OR = 0·40, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·95, P = 0·039) were protective against depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of eggs was close to being significant in both regression models (P = 0·087 and 0·069, respectively). Other food categories including meat/poultry, fish, seafood, dairy, legumes, grains and tea showed no significant associations. Conclusions Results suggest that although confounding factors cannot be totally ruled out, more frequent consumption of vegetables seems to be protective against depressive symptoms in the elderly. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causal role and the mechanism of the association

    Solvability of some classes of nonlinear first-order difference equations by invariants and generalized invariants

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    [[abstract]]We introduce notion of a generalized invariant for difference equations, which naturally generalizes notion of an invariant for the equations. Some motivations, basic examples and methods for application of invariants in the theory of solvability of difference equations are given. By using an invariant, as well as, a generalized invariant it is shown solvability of two classes of nonlinear first-order difference equations of interest, for nonnegative initial values and parameters appearing therein, considerably extending and explaining some problems in the literature. It is also explained how these classes of difference equations can be naturally obtained from some linear second-order difference equations with constant coefficients. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Electronic Journal of Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations is the property of Bolyai Institute and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.

    The Different Cardiovascular Outcomes Between Long-Term Efficacy of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Statin Therapy in Both Asian Diabetic Sexes.

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    [[abstract]]Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy of hydrophilic and lipophilic statin therapy for cardiovascular outcomes in Asian diabetic patients. Method Newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes during the period from January 2000 to December 2011 were divided into 2 cohorts on the basis of their statin use, namely hydrophilic statin and lipophilic statin. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to analyze the risks of cardiovascular outcomes. Result In this study, 12 896 patients used statin, including 4259 patients using hydrophilic statin and 8637 patients using lipophilic statin. With 12-year follow-up, higher incidence rate of coronary artery disease and stroke was noted in the lipophilic statin use instead of hydrophilic statin use. Conclusion According to our long-term cohort study, hydrophilic statin use may be a better choice than lipophilic statin to reduce cardiovascular events in Asian diabetic patients


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