Bradford Scholars

    An Assessment of the 2002 National Security Strategy of the United States: Continuity and Change.

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    The 2002 National Security Strategy of the US (NSS 2002) appeared to have presented a momentous approach to self-defense. To many, the doctrine of preemptive selfdefense seemed to challenge the legal and political foundations of the post-World War II international order. Some saw in the US stated reliance on preemption a direct threat to the international system embodied in the UN Charter. The prima facie case that the US position was novel and even dangerous appeared persuasive. This thesis attempts to assess the exceptionality of NSS 2002 in its formulation and implications. This question of exceptionality is broadly divided into two sections. The first section deals with internal exceptionality, in terms of means (the deliberation and drafting processes) and ends (the US defense posture). The second section deals with external exceptionality in the broader terms of possible consequences outside the US. Section One begins by establishing the grounds for looking into the formulation of NSS 2002, and provides the background for that Strategy's mandated precursors. After exploring how National Security Strategy documents are conceived and framed, Section One discusses the Strategy as it was published, and examines a sampling of contemporaneous reactions to its publication. Section Two concentrates on the second part of the research question, and utilizes a thematic approach ¿ in terms of the use of force, the international security environment, and international law. Possible consequences of the proposed US response to contemporary security challenges are considered in these three key areas

    Fatty acid and lipid profiles in models of neuroinflammation and mood disorders. Application of high field NMR, gas chromotography and liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the effects of atorvaststin in brain and liver lipids and explore brain lipid changes in the FSL model of depression.

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    Lipids are important for the structural and physiological functions of neuronal cell membranes. Alterations in their lipid composition may result in membrane dysfunction and subsequent neuronal deficits that characterise various disorders. This study focused on profiling lipids of aged and LPS-treated rat brain and liver tissue with a view to explore the effect of atorvastatin in neuroinflammation, and examining lipid changes in different areas of rat brain of the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression. Lipids and other analytes extracted from tissue samples were analysed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Changes in the lipid profiles suggested that brain and liver responded differently to ageing and LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In the aged animals, n-3 PUFA were reduced in the brain but were increased in the liver. However, following treatment with LPS, these effects were not observed. Nevertheless, in both models, brain concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids was increased while the liver was able to maintain its monounsaturated fatty acid concentration. Atorvastatin reversed the reduction in n-3 PUFA in the aged brain without reducing brain and liver concentration of cholesterol. These findings further highlight alterations in lipid metabolism in agerelated neuroinflammation and show that the anti-inflammatory actions of atorvastatin may include a modulation of fatty acid metabolism. When studying the FSL model, there were differences in the lipid profile of different brain areas of FSL rats compared to Sprague-Dawley controls. In all brain areas, arachidonic acid was increased in the FSL rats. Docosahexaenoic acid and ether lipids were reduced, while cholesterol and sphingolipids were increased in the hypothalamus of the FSL rats. Furthermore, total diacylglycerophospholipids were reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus of the FSL rats. These results show differences in the lipid metabolism of the FSL rat brain and may be suggestive of changes occurring in the brain tissue in depression

    Knowledge-based approaches to fault diagnosis. The development, implementation, evaluation and comparison of knowledge-based systems, incorporating deep and shallow knowledge, to aid in the diagnosis of faults in complex hydro-mechanical devices.

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    The use of knowledge-based systems to aid in the diagnosis of faults in physical devices has grown considerably since their introduction during the 1970s. The majority of the early knowledge-based systems incorporated shallow knowledge, which sought to define simple cause and effect relationships between a symptom and a fault, that could be encoded as a set of rules. Though such systems enjoyed much success, it was recognised that they suffered from a number of inherent limitations such as inflexibility, inadequate explanation, and difficulties of knowledge elicitation. Many of these limitations can be overcome by developing knowledge-based systems which contain deeper knowledge about the device being diagnosed. Such systems, now generally referred to as model-based systems, have shown much promise, but there has been little evidence to suggest that they have successfully made the transition from the research centre to the workplace. This thesis argues that knowledge-based systems are an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of faults in complex devices, and that both deep and shallow knowledge have their part to play in this process. More specifically this thesis demonstrates how a wide-ranging knowledge-based system for quality assurance, based upon shallow knowledge, can be developed, and implemented. The resultant system, named DIPLOMA, not only diagnoses faults, but additionally provides advice and guidance on the assembly, disassembly, testing, inspection and repair of a highly complex hydro-mechanical device. Additionally it is shown that a highly innovative modelbased system, named MIDAS, can be used to contribute to the provision of diagnostic, explanatory and training facilities for the same hydro-mechanical device. The methods of designing, coding, implementing and evaluating both systems are explored in detail. The successful implementation and evaluation of the DIPLOMA and MIDAS systems has shown that knowledge-based systems are an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of faults in complex hydro-mechanical devices, and that they make a beneficial contribution to the business performance of the host organisation. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the most effective and comprehensive knowledge-based approach to fault diagnosis is one which incorporates both deep and shallow knowledge, so that the distinctive advantages of each can be realised in a single application. Finally, the research has provided evidence that the model-based approach to diagnosis is highly flexible, and may, therefore, be an appropriate technique for a wide range of industrial applications.Science and Engineering Research Council, and Alvey Directorat

    The role of customer service in a highly tangible business-to-business market.

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    Defining and measuring the quality of customer service has been a major challenge for business-to-business marketers. This research addresses the question whether an established instrument for consumer markets (SERVQUAL) can be used for understanding the role of customer service in the European nylon intermediates industry. To accomplish this objective, an in-depth literature review is accomplished followed by several expert panels adopting the instrument slightly. Based on a survey sample of 110 industry members collected with the ¿drop and collect technique¿ the appropriateness of the tool to verify the anticipated structure is examined using reliability tests as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The findings suggest that even though various criteria for reliability and validity are met, the five-dimensional structure of the instrument cannot be recovered. The research questions the usefulness of the instrument for the European nylon intermediates industry despite it being originally anticipated to be applicable. However, the research emphasises that the instrument is a useful indicator for understanding the role of customer service based on individual items rather than on the instrument¿s dimensionality. It is demonstrated how the implementation in the nylon intermediates industry enables an organization to develop a greater awareness of customer service quality and how an enterprise gains an initial instrument to comprehend and improve this element of the offering. The thesis concludes by linking the results of the research with the discussion on service-dominant logic

    `Real¿ managers don¿t do NVQs: a review of the new management `standards¿

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    In 1997 the Management Charter Initiative (MCI) officially launched the new Management NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications), benchmarks which attempted to describe the work performed by British managers. This article is a review of those qualifications. It remembers some of the main problems associated with the original Management NVQs and, drawing on some of the best theoretical and empirical accounts of managerial work, argues that the new qualifications have failed to live up to the MCI¿s original promise, to assist the development and training of managers

    Eating and stress at work: The need for public health promotion intervention and an opportunity for food product development?

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    YesGiven the large proportion of time spent at work, it is surprising that relatively little research has been devoted to understanding food selection in the work place. A growing literature suggests that stress, particularly occupation-related stress, negatively impacts upon food choice and may contribute to population ill health. The consensus is that work stress induces consumption of foods that are high in sugar, fat and salt which are likely to contribute to overweight and have long-term detriment to health. The interaction between stress and eating appears to vary by sex and type of work undertaken. This paper argues an imperative for further longitudinal and intervention research to understand interactions between food choice and stress in the work context with a view to the design of dietary health promotion and the development of nourishing food products targeted at those experiencing stress and which could be made accessible in the work place

    Adaptive technique for energy management in wireless sensor networks. Development, simulation and evaluation of adaptive techniques for energy efficient routing protocols applied to cluster based wireless sensor networks.

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    Recently, wireless sensor networks have become one of the most exciting areas for research and development. However, sensor nodes are battery operated, thus the sensor¿s ability to perform its assigned tasks is limited by its battery capacity; therefore, energy efficiency is considered to be a key issue in designing WSN applications. Clustering has emerged as a useful mechanism for trade-off between certain design goal conflicts; the network life time, and the amount of data obtained. However, different sources of energy waste still exist. Furthermore, in such dynamic environments, different data rate requirements emerge due to the current network status, thus adapting a response to the changing network is essential, rather than following the same principle during the network¿s lifespan. This thesis presents dynamic techniques to adapt to network changes, through which the limited critical energy source can be wisely managed so that the WSN application can achieve its intended design goals. Two approaches have been taken to decreasing the energy use. The first approach is to develop two dynamic round time controllers, called the minimum round time controller MIN-RC and the variable round time controller VAR-RC, whereas the second approach improves intra-cluster communication using a Co-Cluster head; both approaches show better energy utilisation compared to traditional protocols. A third approach has been to develop a general hybrid protocol H-RC that can adapt different applications requirements; it can also tolerate different data rate requirements for the same application during the system¿s lifetime

    Contributions to fuzzy object comparison and applications. Similarity measures for fuzzy and heterogeneous data and their applications.

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    This thesis makes an original contribution to knowledge in the fi eld of data objects' comparison where the objects are described by attributes of fuzzy or heterogeneous (numeric and symbolic) data types. Many real world database systems and applications require information management components that provide support for managing such imperfect and heterogeneous data objects. For example, with new online information made available from various sources, in semi-structured, structured or unstructured representations, new information usage and search algorithms must consider where such data collections may contain objects/records with di fferent types of data: fuzzy, numerical and categorical for the same attributes. New approaches of similarity have been presented in this research to support such data comparison. A generalisation of both geometric and set theoretical similarity models has enabled propose new similarity measures presented in this thesis, to handle the vagueness (fuzzy data type) within data objects. A framework of new and unif ied similarity measures for comparing heterogeneous objects described by numerical, categorical and fuzzy attributes has also been introduced. Examples are used to illustrate, compare and discuss the applications and e fficiency of the proposed approaches to heterogeneous data comparison.Libyan Embass

    The emperors clothes – corporate social responsibility creating shared value and sustainability

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    YesCorporations in the 21st play a decisive role in the future of society. Their power and influence in world affairs often seems devoid of ethics and seems to exceed the reach and the means of many nations. As a result, the strategic positions they take towards value creation and ethics affects every individual on the planet. This paper explores strategic routes that organisations could apply to facilitate economic growth while ensuring their ecological integrity and ensuring social enhancement generating benefits to a wider scope of organisational stakeholders. By conducting a critical analysis and clarifying common misconceptions between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Creating Shared Value (CSV) and Sustainability, it is possible to determine how these interrelated strategic approaches have evolved. This article argues the importance of transforming the purpose of organisations to encapsulate stakeholder value creation as the main reason for their existence

    The Medicinal Chemistry of Imidazotetrazine Prodrugs

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    YesTemozolomide (TMZ) is the standard first line treatment for malignant glioma, reaching “blockbuster” status in 2010, yet it remains the only drug in its class. The main constraints on the clinical effectiveness of TMZ therapy are its requirement for active DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins for activity, and inherent resistance through O6-methyl guanine-DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) activity. Moreover, acquired resistance, due to MMR mutation, results in aggressive TMZ-resistant tumour regrowth following good initial responses. Much of the attraction in TMZ as a drug lies in its PK/PD properties: it is acid stable and has 100% oral bioavailability; it also has excellent distribution properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and there is direct evidence of tumour localisation. This review seeks to unravel some of the mysteries of the imidazotetrazine class of compounds to which TMZ belongs. In addition to an overview of different synthetic strategies, we explore the somewhat unusual chemical reactivity of the imidazotetrazines, probing their mechanisms of reaction, examining which attributes are required for an active drug molecule and reviewing the use of this combined knowledge towards the development of new and improved anti-cancer agents
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