Publikationer från Linköpings universitet
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    Red junglefowl have individual body odors

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    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.Original Publication: Anna-Carin Karlsson, Per Jensen, Mathias Elgland, Katriann Laur, Timmy Fyrner, Peter Konradsson and Matthias Laska, Red junglefowl have individual body odors, 2010, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, (213), 10, 1619-1624. Copyright: The Company of Biologists Ltd</p

    Decreased Th1-Type Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in the Skin Is Associated with Persisting Symptoms after Treatment of Erythema Migrans

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    Background: Despite the good prognosis of erythema migrans (EM), some patients have persisting symptoms of various character and duration post-treatment. Several factors may affect the clinical outcome of EM, e. g. the early interaction between Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the host immune response, the B. burgdorferi genotype, antibiotic treatment as well as other clinical circumstances. Our study was designed to determine whether early cytokine expression in the skin and in peripheral blood in patients with EM is associated with the clinical outcome. Methods: A prospective follow-up study of 109 patients with EM was conducted at the A land Islands, Finland. Symptoms were evaluated at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-treatment. Skin biopsies from the EM and healthy skin were immunohistochemically analysed for expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, as well as for B. burgdorferi DNA. Blood samples were analysed for B. burgdorferi antibodies, allergic predisposition and levels of systemic cytokines. Findings: None of the patients developed late manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. However, at the 6-month follow-up, 7 of 88 patients reported persisting symptoms of diverse character. Compared to asymptomatic patients, these 7 patients showed decreased expression of the Th1-associated cytokine IFN-gamma in the EM biopsies (p = 0.003). B. afzelii DNA was found in 48%, B. garinii in 15% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in 1% of the EM biopsies, and species distribution was the same in patients with and without post-treatment symptoms. The two groups did not differ regarding baseline patient characteristics, B. burgdorferi antibodies, allergic predisposition or systemic cytokine levels. Conclusion: Patients with persisting symptoms following an EM show a decreased Th1-type inflammatory response in infected skin early during the infection, which might reflect a dysregulation of the early immune response. This finding supports the importance of an early, local Th1-type response for optimal resolution of LB.Original Publication: Johanna Sjöwall, Linda Fryland, Marika Nordberg, Florence Sjögren, Ulf Garpmo, Christian Jansson, Sten-Anders Carlsson, Sven Bergstrom, Jan Ernerudh, Dag Nyman, Pia Forsberg and Christina Ekerfelt, Decreased Th1-Type Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in the Skin Is Associated with Persisting Symptoms after Treatment of Erythema Migrans, 2011, PLOS ONE, (6), 3, 0018220. Copyright: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

    Different Methods of Early Identification of Risky Drinking: A Review of Clinical Signs

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    Aims: To review the literature on detection of risky drinking to compare early identification based on everyday clinical encounters with systematic screening. We also reviewed specific clinical signs that have been suggested to be used as indicators of risky drinking. Methods: A literature review was performed in PubMed and CINAHL of articles up to November 2010. Results: Systematic screening and semi-systematic methods in various forms detected more risky drinkers than non-systematic identification during clinical encounter, but there was a lack of studies comparing the various means of identifying risky drinking. It may be too early to completely rule out the possibility of using non-systematic methods as an effective strategy to identify risky drinking. The earliest signs of risky drinking suggested in the literature are psychological distress and social problems. Conclusion: From a public health perspective, there is a lack of evidence that non-systematic or semi-systematic methods can substitute systematic screening in terms of numbers of risky drinkers detected. If early signs are going to be used to identify risky drinkers, or those to be screened for risky drinking, more focus should be on psychological and social signs because they appear earlier than somatic signs.This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Hanna K Reinholdz, Preben Bendtsen and Fredrik Spak, Different Methods of Early Identification of Risky Drinking: A Review of Clinical Signs, 2011, ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM, (46), 3, 283-291. is available online at: Copyright: Oxford University Press

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids-Use and Correlates among Gym Users-An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region

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    he purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to the questionnaire, 3.9% of men reported life time use of AAS, 1.4% use during the past 12 months and 0.4% AAS use during past 30 days. Not only were there similar patterns found in the two methods, i.e., similar age and gender distributions for AAS use, but analyses of concordance showed that gyms with a higher prevalence of self-reported AAS-use and supplement use (questionnaire) showed a significantly higher proportion of observer-assessed AAS users. Analyses of individual predictors showed that AAS users were almost always young men, regular weight trainers and more often users of drugs and nutritional supplements. The higher prevalence of AAS use among gym users than in the general population makes the former an appropriate target group for AAS prevention. The connection between supplements, drugs and AAS use suggests that effective AAS prevention need to focus on several risk factors for AAS use. The clear resemblance in estimates between the observation and questionnaire data strengthen the credibility of the two methods.Original Publication: Hakan Leifman, Charlotta Rehnman, Erika Sjoblom and Stefan Holgersson, Anabolic Androgenic Steroids-Use and Correlates among Gym Users-An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region, 2011, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, (8), 7, 2656-2674. Copyright: MDPI</p

    Histone Variants and Their Post-Translational Modifications in Primary Human Fat Cells

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    Epigenetic changes related to human disease cannot be fully addressed by studies of cells from cultures or from other mammals. We isolated human fat cells from subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue of female subjects and extracted histones from either purified nuclei or intact cells. Direct acid extraction of whole adipocytes was more efficient, yielding about 100 mu g of protein with histone content of 60%-70% from 10 mL of fat cells. Differential proteolysis of the protein extracts by trypsin or ArgC-protease followed by nanoLC/MS/MS with alternating CID/ETD peptide sequencing identified 19 histone variants. Four variants were found at the protein level for the first time; particularly HIST2H4B was identified besides the only H4 isoform earlier known to be expressed in humans. Three of the found H2A potentially organize small nucleosomes in transcriptionally active chromatin, while two H2AFY variants inactivate X chromosome in female cells. HIST1H2BA and three of the identified H1 variants had earlier been described only as oocyte or testis specific histones. H2AFX and H2AFY revealed differential and variable N-terminal processing. Out of 78 histone modifications by acetylation/trimethylation, methylation, dimethylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination, identified from six subjects, 68 were found for the first time. Only 23 of these modifications were detected in two or more subjects, while all the others were individual specific. The direct acid extraction of adipocytes allows for personal epigenetic analyses of human fat tissue, for profiling of histone modifications related to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, as well as for selection of individual medical treatments.Original Publication: Asa Jufvas, Peter Strålfors and Alexander Vener, Histone Variants and Their Post-Translational Modifications in Primary Human Fat Cells, 2011, PLOS ONE, (6), 1. Licensee: Public Library of Science (PLoS)</p

    Amyloid formation by the pro-inflammatory S100A8/A9 proteins in the ageing prostate.

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    BACKGROUND: The conversion of soluble peptides and proteins into polymeric amyloid structures is a hallmark of many age-related degenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes and a variety of systemic amyloidoses. We report here that amyloid formation is linked to another major age-related phenomenon--prostate tissue remodelling in middle-aged and elderly men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using multidisciplinary analysis of corpora amylacea inclusions in prostate glands of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer we have revealed that their major components are the amyloid forms of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins associated with numerous inflammatory conditions and types of cancer. In prostate protease rich environment the amyloids are stabilized by dystrophic calcification and lateral thickening. We have demonstrated that material closely resembling CA can be produced from S100A8/A9 in vitro under native and acidic conditions and shows the characters of amyloids. This process is facilitated by calcium or zinc, both of which are abundant in ex vivo inclusions. These observations were supported by computational analysis of the S100A8/A9 calcium-dependent aggregation propensity profiles. We found DNA and proteins from Escherichia coli in CA bodies, suggesting that their formation is likely to be associated with bacterial infection. CA inclusions were also accompanied by the activation of macrophages and by an increase in the concentration of S100A8/A9 in the surrounding tissues, indicating inflammatory reactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, taken together, suggest a link between bacterial infection, inflammation and amyloid deposition of pro-inflammatory proteins S100A8/A9 in the prostate gland, such that a self-perpetuating cycle can be triggered and may increase the risk of malignancy in the ageing prostate. The results provide strong support for the prediction that the generic ability of polypeptide chains to convert into amyloids could lead to their involvement in an increasing number of otherwise apparently unrelated diseases, particularly those associated with ageing.Original Publication:Kiran Yanamandra, Oleg Alexeyev, Vladimir Zamotin, Vaibhav Srivastava, Andrei Shchukarev, Ann-Christin Brorsson, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia, Thomas Vogl, Rakez Kayed, Gunnar Wingsle, Jan Olsson, Christopher M Dobson, Anders Bergh, Fredrik Elgh and Ludmilla A Morozova-Roche, Amyloid formation by the pro-inflammatory S100A8/A9 proteins in the ageing prostate., 2009, PloS one, (4), 5, e5562.

    Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Middle-Aged Normal Population

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    Background: Elevated levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) have been demonstrated in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to analyse levels of MMP-9 in a population free from symptomatic CAD and investigate their associations with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP).   Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a population based random sample aged 45–69 (n = 345, 50% women). MMP-9 levels were measured in EDTA-plasma using an ELISA-method. CV risk factors were measured using questionnaires and standard laboratory methods. Results: Plasma MMP-9 was detectable in all participants, mean 38.9 ng/mL (SD 22.1 ng/mL). Among individuals without reported symptomatic CAD a positive association (p&lt;0.001) was seen, for both men and women, of MMP-9 levels regarding total risk load of eight CV risk factors i.e. blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The association was significant also after adjustment for CRP, and was not driven by a single risk factor alone. In regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake and CRP, elevated MMP-9 levels were independently positively associated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.037), smoking (p&lt;0.001), alcohol intake (p = 0.003) and CRP (p&lt;0.001). The correlation coefficient between MMP-9 and CRP was r = 0.24 (p&lt;0.001).   Conclusions: In a population without reported symptomatic CAD, MMP-9 levels were associated with total CV risk load as well as with single risk factors. This was found also after adjustment for CRP  Original Publication: Peter Garvin, Lennart Nilsson, John Carstensen, Lena Jonasson and Margareta Kristenson, Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Middle-Aged Normal Population, 2008, PLoS ONE, (3), 3, e1774. Licensee: Public Library of Science (PLoS)</p

    Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art

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    Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of bench-top flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa.This is the authors’ version of the following article: Md Sharoare Hossain, Anders Johannisson, Margareta Wallgren, Szabolcs Nagy, Amanda Pimenta Siqueira and Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art, 2011, ASIAN JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, (13), 3, 406-419. which has been published in final form at: Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd</p

    Copy number variation in intron 1 of SOX5 causes the Pea-comb phenotype in chickens

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    Pea-comb is a dominant mutation in chickens that drastically reduces the size of the comb and wattles. It is an adaptive trait in cold climates as it reduces heat loss and makes the chicken less susceptible to frost lesions. Here we report that Pea-comb is caused by a massive amplification of a duplicated sequence located near evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in intron 1 of the gene encoding the SOX5 transcription factor. This must be the causative mutation since all other polymorphisms associated with the Pea-comb allele were excluded by genetic analysis. SOX5 controls cell fate and differentiation and is essential for skeletal development, chondrocyte differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Immunostaining in early embryos demonstrated that Pea-comb is associated with ectopic expression of SOX5 in mesenchymal cells located just beneath the surface ectoderm where the comb and wattles will subsequently develop. The results imply that the duplication expansion interferes with the regulation of SOX5 expression during the differentiation of cells crucial for the development of comb and wattles. The study provides novel insight into the nature of mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution and is the first description of a spontaneous and fully viable mutation in this developmentally important gene.Original Publication:Dominic Wright, H. Boije, J.R.S. Meadows, B. Bedhom, D. Gourichon, A. Vieaud, M. Tixier-Boichard, C.-J. Rubin, F. Imsland, F. Hallbook and L. Andersson, Copy number variation in intron 1 of SOX5 causes the Pea-comb phenotype in chickens, 2009, PLoS Genetics, (5), 6, e1000512.

    Serologic Analysis of Returned Travelers with Fever, Sweden

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    We studied 1,432 febrile travelers from Sweden who had returned from malaria-endemic areas during March 2005-March 2008. In 383 patients, paired serum samples were blindly analyzed for influenza and 7 other agents. For 21% of 115 patients with fever of unknown origin, serologic analysis showed that influenza was the major cause.Original Publication: Helena H Askling, Birgitta Lesko, Sirkka Vene, Angerd Berndtson, Per Bjorkman, Jonas Blackberg, Ulf Bronner, Per Follin, Urban Hellgren, Maria Palmerus, Karl Ekdahl, Anders Tegnell and Johan Struwe, Serologic Analysis of Returned Travelers with Fever, Sweden, 2009, EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, (15), 11, 1805-1808. Copyright: National Center for Infectious Diseases</p


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