Location of Repository

Reducing attendances and waits in emergency departments : a systematic review of present innovations

By Matthew (Professor of clinical systems design) Cooke, Joanne Fisher, 1958- Jeremy Dale, Eileen McLeod, Ala Szczepura, Paul Walley and Dr Sue Wilson


Reducing the waits in emergency departments is important for patients and is a government priority. In order to reduce waits the whole system must be considered. The flow of patients before arrival at the emergency department determines the workload of the department. The staffing, resources and systems within the emergency department are key to providing high quality timely care. The flow of patients after leaving the emergency department until their return home will determine whether they can be discharged from the department in a timely manner. Despite the present focus on emergency care in the NHS there have been no reviews of the literature to inform the present changes to reduce waits

Topics: R Medicine (General)
Publisher: [National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation R & D (NCCSDO)]
Year: 2004
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:134

download Get cached PDF (659.0 kB)

  1. D Airey and A J Franks. (1995). Major trauma workload within an English health region’,
  2. J McKay, I and V Novotny-Dinsdale. (1985). Use of prehospital care providers in emergency departments: A national survey’,
  3. J and D Justham. (2005). American College of Emergency Physicians. [n.d.]. The ACEP have produced a range of best practice resources, available online
  4. S Anderson, P D Hogskilde, J Wettersley, M Bredgaard, Moller Sorensed, J T Dahl, J B Hogskilde and S. (2002). Appropriateness of leaving emergency medical service treated hypoglycemic patients at home: a retrospective study’,
  5. K G Andren and U Rosenquvist. (1985). Heavy users of an emergency department: psycho-social and medical characteristics, other health care contacts and the effect of a hospital social worker intervention’,
  6. (1998). These novel strategies decrease ED delays’,
  7. (1998). Data from ED patient tracking system help identify xray cycle time improvements’,
  8. (1998). Diabetes program cuts ED visits 67% in first 6 months’,
  9. (1999). Albuquerque halts EMS triage program’,
  10. 2000b. (2005). Teamwork helps cut ED wait times’, Healthcare Benchmarks7:40-41. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  11. M W Ardagh, J E Wells, K Cooper, R Lyons, R Patterson and P O’Donovan. (2002). Effect of a rapid assessment clinic on the waiting time to be seen by a doctor and the time spent in the department, for patients presenting to an urban emergency department: A controlled prospective trial’,
  12. (2000). Arizona College of Emergency Physicians.
  13. A M Armstrong, A G Pennycook and I J Swann. (1991). Unplanned reattendance in the accident and emergency department’,
  14. S H Armstrong, N R Peden, S Nimmo and M Alcorn. (2001). Appropriateness of bed usage for inpatients admitted as emergencies to internal medicine services’,
  15. R Askenasi, P Lheureux and J B Gillet. (1989). Influence of tests on patient time in the emergency department’, Reanimation Soins Intensifs Medecine d’Urgence
  16. B R Asplin. (2001). Undertriage, overtriage or no triage?’,
  17. Audit Commission. (2001). By Accident or Design: Improving
  18. Audit Commission. (1998). By Accident or Design: A review of progress in A&E.
  19. H M E Azzazy and R H Christenson. (2002). Cardiac markers and point of care testing: A practical approach’,
  20. J T Badgett. (1986). Can Medicaid format alter emergency department utilization patterns?’, Pediatric Emergency Care.
  21. A Bagust, M Place and J W Posnett. (1999). Dynamics of bed use in accommodating emergency admissions: stochastic simulation model’,
  22. D W Baker, R M Parker, M V Williams, Scott Clark and W. (1998). Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission’,
  23. J Ball, M Dixon and L Holt. (2000). Why are we waiting? Snapshots surveys of the impact of emergency pressures on patient care’,
  24. S Banerjee and W E Rhoden. (1998). Fast-tracking of myocardial infarction by paramedics’,
  25. L J Baraff, T J Lee, S Kader and R Della-Penna. (1999). Effect of a practice guideline for emergency department care of falls in elderly patients on subsequent falls and hospitalisations for injuries’,
  26. M Bayley, J Shofer Schwartz, F Weiner, M Sites, F Traber, K and J Hollander. (2002). The financial burden of ED congestion and hospital overcrowding for chest pain patients awaiting admission’, Academic Emergency Medicine 9:367-a.
  27. J J Bazarian, S M Schneider, V J Newman and J Chodosh. (1996). Do admitted patients held in the emergency department impact the throughput of treat-and-release patients?’,
  28. J Beales. (1997). Innovation in Accident and Emergency management: establishing a nurse practitioner-run minor/ injuries/primary care unit’, Accident and Emergency Nursing
  29. L Beecham. (1999). Accident departments are not used properly’,
  30. A V Benavent and R F Casares. (1994). Primary care as a determinant of the utilization of hospital emergency services’,
  31. J Beney, L A Bero and C Bond. (2001). Expanding the roles of outpatient pharmacists: effects on health services utilisation, costs, and patient outcomes. (Cochrane Review)’,
  32. J R Benz and J C Shank. (1982). Alteration of emergency room usage in a family practice residency programme’,
  33. E J Gallagher, M Utkewicz, P Gennis and W Carter. (1994). Failure to validate a predictive model for refusal of care to ED patients’,
  34. M Blaivas, P Sierzenski, D Plecque and M Lambert. (2000). Do emergency physicians save time when locating a live intrauterine pregnancy with bedside ultrasonography?’, Academic Emergency Medicine. 7:988-993. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  35. C Bloe. (2001). Nurse-initiated coronary thrombolysis’,
  36. E I Bluth, D J Lambert and T P Lohmann. (1992). Improvements in “stat” laboratory turn-around time. A model continuous quality improvement project’,
  37. R Boaden, N Proudlove and M Wilson. (1999). An exploratory study of bed management’,
  38. E Boger. (2003). Electronic tracking board reduces ED patient length of stay at Indiana Hospital’,
  39. A Boland, Y Dundar, A Bagust, A Haycox, R Hill, Mujica Moto, R Walley, T and R Dickson. (2003). Early thrombolysis for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and economic evaluation’,
  40. P A Bond. (2001). A staffed ED assessment room: impact on wait times for nonurgent patients at a Saudi Arabian hospital’,
  41. V J Boyack and A E Bucknum. (1991). The quick response team: a pilot project’,
  42. P Boyle, R Pineault and D Roberge. (1992). Assessing Quebec’s multicomponent program to reduce emergency room overcrowding’, Canadian Public Policy
  43. W J Brady, N Brauning, D S Lee, J K Pietska, P O Kelly, S Huff and M L Martin. (2000). Social needs in the elderly, recognition by emergency physicians and impact on additional medical care’, Academic Emergency Medicine 7:571.
  44. C P Brandt, T Coffee, L Yurko, C J Yowler and R B Fratianne. (2000). Triage of minor burn wounds: avoiding the emergency department’,
  45. J A Brebner, H Ruddick-Bracken, J N Norman and J G Page. (1996). The nurse practitioner: management of minor trauma’,
  46. J Brenchley, J P Sloan and P K Thompson. (2000). Echoes of things to come.
  47. J Bridges, K Spilsbury, J Meyer and R Crouch. (1999). Older people in A&E: literature review and implications for British policy and practice’,
  48. J Brillman, L Mathers-Dunbar, L Graff, T Joseph, J Leikin, C Schultz, H Severance and C Werne. (1995). Management of observation units’, Annals of Emergency Medicine 25:823-830. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  49. J C Brillman, D Doezeman and D Tandberg. (1997). Triage: limitations in predicting need for emergency care hospital admissions’,
  50. E Brockmeyer, H L Halstrom and A Jensen. (1948). The life and works of A.K.
  51. C Brogan, D Pickard, A Gray, S Fairman and A Hill. (1998). The use of out of hours health services: a cross sectional survey’,
  52. N Brook. (2001). Nurse-led discharge planning improves quality of care’,
  53. D Brookoff and M Minniti-Hill. (1994). Emergency department based home care’,
  54. R Brown. (2000). Activities of accident and emergency consultants - a time and motion study’,
  55. G J Browne, H Giles, M E McCaskill, B J Fasher and L T Lam. (2001). The benefits of using clinical pathways for managing acute paediatric illness in an emergency department’,
  56. D P Buesching, A Jablonowoski and E Vesta. (1985). Inappropriate emergency department visits’,
  57. S W Burgher, T K Tandy and M R Dawdy. (1998). Transvaginal ultrasonography by emergency physicians decreases patient time in the emergency department’,
  58. M G Burnett and S A Grover. (1996). Use of the emergency department for nonurgent care during regular business hours’,
  59. G Byrne, M Richardson, J Brunsdon and A Patel. (2000). An evaluation of the care of patients with minor injuries in emergency settings’, Accident and Emergency Nursing 8:101-109.
  60. M Byrne, A W Murphy, P K Plunkett, H M McGee, A Murray and G Bury. (2003). Frequent attenders to an emergency department: a study of primary health care use, medical profile, and psychosocial characteristics’,
  61. P Bywaters and E McLeod. (2003). Social care’s impact on emergency medicine: a model to test’, Emergency Medicine Journal 20:134-137. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  62. Calgary Health. (2005). Region. [n.d.] ‘Regional collaborative for system improvement 2004-2005’ [Online]. Available(March
  63. J L Campbell. (1994). General practitioner appointment systems, patient satisfaction, and use of accident and emergency services-a study in one geographical area’,
  64. A Cannaby, S Parker and R Baker. (2003). Identifying barriers to improving the process of discharging patients from hospital’, Primary Health Care
  65. D M Cardello. (1992). Implementation of a one-hour fast-track service: One hospital’s experience’,
  66. S Cardin, M Afilalo, E Lang, J Collet, A Colacone, C Tselios, J Dankoff and A Guttman. (2003). Intervention to decrease emergency department crowding: Does it have an effect on return visits and hospital readmissions?’
  67. R Carlisle, L M Groom, A J Avery, D Boot and S Earwicker. (1998). Relation of out of hours activity by general practice and accident and emergency services with deprivation in Nottingham: longitudinal survey.’
  68. J Carver, R Boyle, D Chamberlain, J Fisher, T Quinn, K Henderson and M Dancy. (2003). Review of Early Thrombolysis. Faster and Better Treatment for Heart Attack Patients. London: Department of Health.
  69. K Castille and M Cooke. (2003). One size does not fit all’,
  70. D J Catellier, E A Conlisk, C M Vitt, K S Levin, M P Menon and G A Upchurch. (2000). A community-based pharmaceutical care program for the elderly reduces emergency room and hospital use’,
  71. S Catnach, J Pinkney, A Woods and P Fairclough. (1992). Fast track admission for patients with acute myocardial infarction’,
  72. J Caunt. (1996). The advanced nurse practitioner in CCU. Care of the critically ill’,
  73. A Celenza, J Fothergill, E Kupek and R J Shaw. (1996). Thunderstorm associated asthma: a detailed analysis of environmental factors’,
  74. V T Chande. (1997). Effects of a new fee-for-service Medicaid managed care plan on pediatric emergency department utilization... including commentary by Rousseak-Harsany E.’,
  75. D B Chapman and J Torpy. (1997). Healthcare expenditures. Development of a heart failure center: a medical center and cardiology practice join forces to improve care and reduce costs’,
  76. C P Charalambous, S Yarwood, C Paschalides, I Siddique, A Paul and P Hirst. (2003). Reduced delays in A&E for elderly patients with hip fractures’,
  77. A Charles, S A Le Vasseur and C Castle. (1999). Suturing of minor lacerations by clinical nurse specialists in the emergency department’, Accident and Emergency Nursing
  78. R Chen, Y Huang and X Liu. (2003). Probe into the second-line onduty nurses enhancing night shift nursing work quality in emergency room’,
  79. W H Cheung, L Heeney and J L Pound. (2002). An advance triage system’, Accident and Emergency Nursing
  80. T K Ching, L Y Leng and N B See. (1999). Initiation of x-rays by the triage nurse: competency and its effect on patients’ total time spent in the accident and emergency department’,
  81. D A Christakis, L Mell, T D Koepsell, F J Zimmerman and F A Connell. (2001). Association of lower continuity of care with greater risk of emergency department use and hospitalization in children’,
  82. C H Chung, C P Ng and K K Lai. (2000). Delays by patients, emergency physicians, and surgeons in the management of acute appendicitis: retrospective study’,
  83. C M J Cline, B Y A Israelsson, R B Willenheimer, K Broms and L R Erhardt. (1998). Cost effective management programme for heart failure reduces hospitilisation’,
  84. (1995). Clinical Standards Advisory Group.
  85. T J Coats and S Michalis. (2001). Mathematical modelling of patient flow through an accident and emergency department’,
  86. R A Cochrane, A T Edwards, D L Crosby, C J Roberts, P A Lewis, S McGee, S Meecham-Jones and A Jones. (1998). Senior Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  87. E A Coleman, T B Eilertsen, A M Kramer, D J Magid, A Beck and D Conner. (2001). Reducing emergency visits in older adults with chronic illness: a randomized, controlled trial of group visits’,
  88. P Coleman, R Irons and J Nicholl. (2001). Will alternative immediate care services reduce demands for nonurgent treatment at accident and emergency’,
  89. V A Collymore, V M L Roche and D Berman. (1997). Redesign of a hospital’s internal medicine service’,
  90. M Cooke. (1996). Employing general practitioners in accident and emergency departments. Better to increase number of consultants in accident and emergency medicine’,
  91. M W Cooke, S Wilson, P Cox and A Roalfe. (2000). Public understanding of medical terminology: non-English speakers may not receive optimal care’,
  92. M W Cooke. (1999). Primary Care Attenders in A&E Literature Review.
  93. M W Cooke. (2001). The Use of Criteria Based Dispatch in the Prioritisation of 999 Emergency Ambulance Calls. [PhD].
  94. M W Cooke, P Arora and S Mason. (2003). Discharge from triage: modelling the potential in different types of emergency department’,
  95. M W Cooke, J Higgins and P Bridge. (2001). Minor injuries. The present state’,
  96. M W Cooke, J Higgins and P Kidd. (2003). Use of emergency observation and assessment wards: a systematic literature review’,
  97. M W Cooke and T Jenner. (2002). Public Attitudes and Perceptions of Accident and Emergency. Internal Report.
  98. M W Cooke, C Kelly, A Khattab, K Lendrum, R Morrell and E J Rubython. (1998). Accident and emergency 24 hour senior cover – a necessity or a luxury?’
  99. M W Cooke, S Morrell, S Wilson, P Bridge, S Edwards, T F Allan and R L Holder. (1999). Does criteria based dispatch of 999 calls adequately detect the critically ill and injured?’, Pre-hospital Immediate Care 3:191-195. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  100. S W Corbett, P D White and W A Wittlake. (2000). Benefits of an informational videotape for emergency department patients’,
  101. R L Cottingham. (1998). Primary care problems in patients attending a semi-rural accident and emergency unit: a prospective study’,
  102. F L Counselman, C A Graffeo and J T Hill. (2000). Patient satisfaction with physician assistants (PAs) in an ED fast track’,
  103. F Cowdell, B Lees and M Wade. (2002). Discharge planning. Armchair fan’,
  104. D K Cragg, R K McKinley, M Roland, S M Campbell, F Van, A M Hastings, D P French, T K Manku-Scott and C Roberts. (1997). Comparison of out of hours care provided by patients’ own general practitioners and commercial deputising services: a randomised controlled trial. I: the process of care’,
  105. R Crouch. (2001). Minor injuries/illness nurse treatment service’,
  106. R Crouch and J Dale. (1994). Identifying feelings engendered during triage assessment in the accident and emergency department: the use of visual analogue scales’,
  107. P J Cunningham, C M Clancy, J W Cohen and M Wilets. (1995). The use of hospital emergency departments for nonurgent health problems: a national perspective’,
  108. J Dale and B Dolan. (1996). Do patients use minor injury units appropriately?’,
  109. J Dale and J Green. (1991). How do nurses working in hospital emergency departments perceive local general practitioners? A study in six English hospitals’,
  110. J Dale, J Green, F Reid, E Glucksman and R Higgs. (1995). Primary care in the accident and emergency department: II. Comparison of general practitioners and hospital doctors’,
  111. J Dale, J Green, F Reid, E Glucksman and R Higgs. (1995). Primary care in the accident and emergency department: I. Prospective identification of patients’,
  112. J Dale, J Higgins, S Williams, T Foster, H Snooks, R Crouch, C Hartley-Sharpe, E Glucksman, R Hooper and S George. (2005). Reducing Attendances and Waits
  113. J Dale, H Lang, J A Roberts, J Green and E Glucksman. (1996). Cost effectiveness of treating primary care patients in accident and emergency: a comparison between general practitioners, senior house officers, and registrars’,
  114. J Dale, S Williams, T Higgins Foster, J Crouch, R Snooks, Hartley Sharpe H, C Glucksman, E and S George. (2000). The Clinical, Organisational and Cost Consequences of ComputerAssisted Telephone Advice to Category C 999 Ambulance Service Callers: Results of a Controlled Trial.
  115. J C Darnell, S L Hiner, P J Neill, J J Mamlin, C J McDonald, S L Hui and W M Tierney. (1985). After-hours telephone access to physicians with access to computerized medical records. Experience in an inner-city general medicine clinic’,
  116. J Davies. (1994). No problem: establishing a nurse requested X-ray service’,
  117. M M Davies and J Heineke. (1994). Understanding the roles of the customer and the operation for better queue management’,
  118. C H Dearden. (1995). Emergency delays’,
  119. R J Delfino, A M Murphy-Moulton, R T Burnett, J R Brook and M R Becklake. (1997). Effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal, Quebec’,
  120. R J Delfino, A M Murphy-Moulton and M R Becklake. (1998). Emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses among the elderly in Montreal: association with low level ozone exposure’, Environmental Research.
  121. K R Denninghoff and P K Moye. (1998). Teaching students during an emergency walk-in clinic rotation does not delay care’, Academic Medicine.
  122. (1997). Patient’s Charter: Developing a New Charter and Changes to the Immediate Assessment in A&E Standard. London: Department of Health. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  123. (2001). Reforming Emergency Care: First steps to a new approach.
  124. (2003). Clinical exceptions to the four hour emergency care target. [Online]. Available at http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/07/95/56/04079556.pdf (accessed 28
  125. R Derlet, J Richards and R Kravitz. (2005). at http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/08/69/02/04086902.pdf Department of Health. 2005a. Hospital Activity Statistics: Total time in A&E. [Online]. Available
  126. R Derlet, J Richards and R Kravitz. (2001). Frequent overcrowding in U.S. emergency departments’,
  127. R W Derlet. (1992). ED overcrowding in New York City’,
  128. R W Derlet, D Kinser, L Ray, B Hamilton and J McKenzie. (1995). Prospective identification and triage on nonemergency patients out of an emergency department: A five year study’,
  129. R W Derlet and D Nishio. (1990). Refusing care to patients who present to an emergency department’, Annals of Emergency Medicine 19:262-267. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  130. R W Derlet and J R Richards. (2000). Overcrowding in the nation’s emergency departments: complex causes and disturbing effects’,
  131. R W Derlet, S J Weiss, A A Ernst, T G Nick, J Arndahl, J R Richards, M Fernandez, R A Schwab, T O Stair, P Viccellio, D Levy, M W Brautigan and A Johnson. (2002). Development of an emergency department overcrowding scale: results of the national ED overcrowding study (NEDOCS)’,
  132. E Y Deykin, C C Hsieh, N Joshi and J J McNamarra. (1986). Adolescent suicidal and self-destructive behavior. Results of an intervention study’,
  133. J S Dickhudt, D K Gjerdingen and D S Asp. (1987). Emergency room use and abuse. How it varies with payment mechanism’,
  134. D Kollek and A F Walker. (2002). Emergency department overcrowding’,
  135. A B Docimo, P J Pronovost, R O Davis, E B Concordia, C M Gabrish, M S Adessa and E Bessman. (2000). Using the online and offline change model to improve efficiency for fast-track patients in an emergency department’,
  136. B Dolan and J Dale. (1997). Characteristics of self referred patients attending minor injury units’,
  137. B Dolan, J Dale and V Morley. (1997). Nurse practitioners: their role in A&E and primary care’,
  138. K A Doobinin, P E Heidt-Davis, T K Gross and D J Isaacman. (2003). Nonurgent pediatric emergency department visits: Care-seeking behavior and parental knowledge of insurance’, Pediatric Emergency Care.
  139. A S Douglas, J M Rawles, E Alexander and T M Allan. (1991). Winter pressure on hospital beds’,
  140. A Downing and R Wilson. (2002). Temporal and demographic variations in attendance at accident and emergency departments’,
  141. Driscoll PA, Vincent CA and M Wilkinson. The use of the accident and emergency department.
  142. A J Drummond. (2002). No room at the inn: overcrowding in Ontario’s emergency departments’, Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 4:91-97. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  143. J Dunn. (1989). Psychiatric intervention in the community hospital emergency room’,
  144. J Edhouse, J Wardrope and F P Morris. (1999). Call to needle times after acute myocardial infarction’,
  145. (2001). Services Committee.
  146. Emergency Medicine Practice Committee. (2002). Guidelines on the role of physician assistants in the emergency department’,
  147. C Erickson, M McErlean, J Bartfield and V Verdile. (2001). Relationship between maloccurence and ED census and staffing’, Academic Emergency Medicine 8:499.
  148. J Espinosa. (1997). ED redesign puts all patients on fast-track’, Patient Focused Care
  149. A Estey, K Ness, D Saunders, A Alibhai and R A Bear. (2003). Understanding the causes of overcrowding in emergency departments in the Capital Health Region in Alberta focus group study’,
  150. D Evans, B Hodgkinson, L Lambert and J Wood. (1999). Fall prevention: a systematic review’, Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing 3:106-111.
  151. T C Evans, E J Lucid and C Amann. (1993). Social work technician program’,
  152. I J Everitt and P Barnett. (2002). Comparison of two benzodiazepines used for sedation of children undergoing suturing of a laceration in an emergency department’, Pediatric Emergency Care.
  153. M Ferber and L Becker. (1983). Impact of freestanding emergency centre on hospital emergency department use’,
  154. E Fergusson, J Li and B Taylor. (1998). Grandmothers’ role in preventing unnecessary accident and emergency attendances: cohort study’,
  155. G J Fermann and J Suyama. (2002). Point of care testing in the emergency department’,
  156. C M Fernandes, A Price and J M Christenson. (1997). Does reduced length of stay decrease the number of emergency department patients who leave without seeing a physician?’,
  157. C M B Fernandes, R Walker, A Price, J Marsden and L Haley. (1997). Root cause analysis of laboratory delays to an emergency department’,
  158. B J Finlayson. (1996). Fast tracking patients with a proximal femoral fracture’,
  159. A Fletcher, J Cummings, M Cooke and S Black. (2004). Emergency Care Waits: Survey Using a National Representative Sample. London: Department of Health.
  160. S Foldes, L Fischer and K Kaminsky. (1994). What is an emergency? The judgements of two physicians’,
  161. D Foroughi and L Chadwick. (1989). Accident and emergency abusers’,
  162. A J Forster, I Stiell, G Wells, A J Lee and C van Walraven. (2003). The effect of hospital occupancy on emergency department length of stay and patient disposition’,
  163. J B Franaszek, B R Asplin, B Brunner, S K Epstein, W W Fields, M B Hill, J A Kaplan, B Krakover, J C Mitchiner, S M Nedza, S M Schneider, T B Taylor and K King. (2002). Responding to emergency department crowding: A guidebook for chapters. Dallas: American College of Emergency Physicians.
  164. S M Franco, C K Mitchell and R M Buzon. (1997). Primary care physician access and gatekeeping: a key to reducing emergency department use’, Clinical Pediatrics.
  165. M Frank-Soltysiak and C Court. (2002). Waiting time and satisfaction of patients attending the emergency surgery unit of a university hospital center’, Presse Med.
  166. G K Freeman, R P Meakin, R A Lawrenson, G M Leydon and G Craig. (1999). Primary care units in A&E departments in North Thames in the 1990s: initial experience and future implications’,
  167. D French, F L Zwemer and S Schneider. (2002). The effects of the absence of emergency medicine residents in an academic emergency department’,
  168. P D Friedmann, L Jin, T G Karrison, D C Hayley, R Mulliken, J Walter and M H Chin. (2001). Early revisit, hospitalization, or death among older persons discharged from the ED’,
  169. Gamboa Antinolo, Gomez Camacho F, Villar Conde Ed E, Vega Sanchez E, Lopez Alonso J, R and J Polo. (2005). Diverting managed care Medicaid patients from pediatric emergency department use’, Pediatrics 95:170-178. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  170. G Gamon, P Driscoll, A Cooper, P Barnes and B Parr. (2002). Can emergency department-initiated thrombolysis supported by a thrombolysis co-ordinator reduce treatment times?’,
  171. L Garbrick, M A Levitt, M Barrett and L Graham. (1996). Agreement between emergency physicians and psychiatrists regarding admission decisions’,
  172. J Geller, P Janson, E McGovern and A Valdini. (1999). Loneliness as a predictor of hospital emergency department use’,
  173. S George, S Read, L Westlake, B Williams, A Fraser-Moodie and P Pritty. (1992). Evaluation of nurse triage in a British accident and emergency department’,
  174. P Gerbeaux, V Ledoray, H Liauthaud, D Torro, K Takun, R Thirree, P Nelh and P Jean. (2001). Medical student effect on emergency department length of stay’,
  175. D Gibney, A W Murphy, D Barton, C Byrne, M Smith, G Bury, E Mullan and P K Plunkett. (1999). Randomized controlled trial of general practitioner versus usual medical care in a suburban accident and emergency department using an informal triage system’,
  176. D Gibney, A W Murphy, M Smith, G Bury and P K Plunkett. (1995). Attitudes of Dublin accident and emergency department doctors and nurses towards the services offered by local general practitioners’,
  177. P G Gibson, L Coughlan, A J Wilson and P G Shekelle. (1998). Limited asthma education reduces emergency department visits but does not improve patient outcomes’, Evidence Based Medicine 3:121.
  178. P G Gibson, H Powell, J Coughlan, A J Wilson, M J Hensley, M Abramson, A and Walters Bauman and E H. (2002). Limited (information only) patient education programs for adults with asthma’,
  179. J M Gill, C L Reese and J J Diamond. (1996). Disagreement among health care professionals about the care needs of emergency department patients’, Annals of Emergency Medicine 28:474-479. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  180. J Glasby and R Littlechild. (2000). fires? - emergency hospital admission and the concept of prevention’,
  181. R J Goldberg, J L Zautcke, Lee Koenigsberg, R W Nagorka, F W Kling, M and S A Ward. (1990). A review of prehospital care litigation in a large metropolitan EMS system’
  182. C R Gomez, Sauer Malkoff, C M Tulyapronchote, R Burch, C M Banet and G A. (1994). Code stroke: An attempt to shorten inhospital therapeutic delays’,
  183. M A Gomez, J L Anderson, L A Karagounis, J B Muhlestein and F B Mooers. (1996). An emergency department-based protocol for rapidly ruling out myocardial ischaemia reduces hospital time and expense: results of a randomised study (ROMIO)’,
  184. E R Gonzalez, L A Jones, J P Ornato, G C Bleecker, M J Strauss, L Ballantine, J Barton, J Edwards, C Elledge, P Fiores, S Kramer, J Massie, N MacKintyre, R Miller, J O'Brien, J Patrizzio, P Pigg, R Powell and R Price. (1999). Hospital delays and problems with thrombolytic administration in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy: a multicenter prospective assessment’,
  185. S Goodacre, F Morris, B Tesfayohannes and G Sutton. (2001). Should ambulant patients be directed to reception or triage first?’,
  186. S W Goodacre. (2000). Should we establish chest pain observation units in the UK? A systematic review and critical appraisal of the literature’,
  187. S W Goodacre. (1998). Role of the short stay observation ward in accident and emergency departments in the United Kingdom’,
  188. S W Goodacre, F M Morris, S Campbell, J Arnold and K Angelini. (2002). A prospective, observational study of a chest pain observation unit in a British hospital’,
  189. J A Gordon. (2001). Cost-benefit analysis of social work services in the emergency department: A conceptual model’,
  190. S Gouin, C Macarthur, P Parkin and S Schuh. (1997). Effect of a pediatric observation unit on the rate of hospitalization for asthma’, Annals of Emergency Medicine 29:218-222. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  191. L Graff, A Palmer, P LaMonica and S Wolf. (2000). Triage patients for a rapid (5 minute) electrocardiogram: A rule based on presenting chief complaints’,
  192. J Graffeo, A Miller and J J Walter. (2000). Identifying high risk elderly patient being discharged home from the ED and characterising their unmet social needs’, Academic Emergency Medicine 7:572.
  193. C A Graham, L S McLeod and D J Steedman. (1998). Restricting extensions to permitted licensing hours does not influence the numbers of alcohol or assault related attendances at an inner city accident and emergency department’,
  194. S Grant, D Spain and D Green. (1999). Rapid assessment team reduces waiting time’,
  195. J Green and J Dale. (1990). Health education and the inappropriate use of accident and emergency departments: the views of accident and emergency nurses’,
  196. L V Green and P J Kolesar. (1987). On the validity and utility of queuing models of human service’,
  197. L K Grossman, L N Rich and C Johnson. (1998). Decreasing nonurgent emergency department utilization by Medicaid children’,
  198. A Grouse and R Bishop. (2001). Non-medical technicians reduce emergency department waiting times’,
  199. K Grumbach, D Keane and A Bindman. (1993). Primary care and public emergency department overcrowding’,
  200. M M Haby, E Waters, C F Robertson, P G Gibson and F M Ducharme. (2001). Interventions for educating children who have attended the emergency room for asthma’,
  201. D S M Hadden, C H Dearden and L G Rocke. (1996). Short stay observation patients: general wards are inappropriate’,
  202. R I Haddy, M E Schmaler and R J Epting. (1987). Nonemergency emergency room use in patients with and without primary care physicians’,
  203. L Hallam and K Henthorne. (1999). Cooperatives and their primary care emergency centres: organisation and impact’,
  204. L C Hampers, S Cha, D J Gutglass, H J Binns and S E Krug. (1999). Fast track and the pediatric emergency department: resource utilization and patient outcomes’,
  205. P Hanlon, S Beck, G Robertson, M Henderson, R McQuillan, S Capewell and A Dorward. (1997). Coping with the inexorable rise in medical admissions: evaluating a radical reorganisation of acute medical care in a Scottish district general hospital’,
  206. C Hann. (1997). Use of occupational therapists in A&E’,
  207. H Hansagi. (1990). Referral of non-urgent cases from an emergency department: patient compliance, satisfaction and attitudes’,
  208. H Hansagi, P Alleback and O Edhag. (1989). Health care utilisation after referral from a hospital emergency department’,
  209. H Hansagi, B Carson, M Oslo and O Edhag. (1997). Trial of a method of reducing inappropriate demands on a hospital emergency department’,
  210. H Hansagi, M Olsson, S Sjoberg, Y Tomson and S Goransson. (2001). Frequent use of the hospital emergency department is indicative of high use of other health care services’,
  211. S Hanumanthu, J Butler, D Chomsky, S Davis and J R Wilson. (1997). Effect of a Heart failure program on hospitalisation frequency and exercise tolerance’,
  212. R D Hardern and D W Harmer. (1995). Guidelines to reduce x ray examinations in accident departments. Implementing guidelines may not improve outcome for patients’,
  213. C Hardy, D Whitwell, B Sarsfield and C Maimaris. (2001). Admission avoidance and early discharge of acute hospital admissions: an accident and emergency based scheme’,
  214. Z Harish, A C Bregante, C Morgan, C S J Fann, C M Callaghan, M A Witt, K A Levinson and W B Caspe. (2001). A comprehensive inner-city asthma program reduces hospital and Reducing Attendances and Waits
  215. M L Harrison, L A Graff and N P Roos. (1995). Discharging patients earlier from Winnipeg hospitals: does it adversely affect quality of care?’,
  216. T B Hassan. (2003). Clinical decision units in the emergency department: old concepts, new paradigms, and refined gate keeping’,
  217. M Hauswald. (2002). Can paramedics safely decide which patients do not need ambulance transport or emergency department care?’, Prehospital Emergency Care
  218. D Heaney and F Paxton. (1995). First Year Interim Report - Minor Injuries Clinic,
  219. D J Heaney and F M Paxton. (1997). Evaluation of the Minor Injuries Clinic at the Western General Hospital,
  220. J R Hedges, A Trout and A R Magnusson. (2002). Satisfied Patients Exiting the Emergency Department (SPEED)’,
  221. C Hendrickson, E Lund and E Stromgard. (1984). Consequences of assessment and intervention among elderly people: a three year randomised controlled trial’,
  222. G L Henry. (1990). Refusal of care-the ethical dilemma’,
  223. J Heyworth and C Egleston. (1998). Telephone triage could help’,
  224. P Hider. (1999). Emergency department attendance: A critical appraisal of the key literature’, New Zealand Health Technology Assessment
  225. J Higgins, S Wilson, P Bridge and M W Cooke. (2001). Communication difficulties during 999 ambulance calls: observational study’,
  226. J R Hilditch. (1980). Changes in hospital emergency department use associated with increased family physician availability’,
  227. E E Hill-Westmoreland, K Soeken and A M Spellbring. (2002). A metaanalysis of fall prevention programs for the elderly: how effective are they?’, Nursing Research 51:1-8. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  228. J M Hirshon, T D Kirsch, W K Mysko and G D Kelen. (1996). Effect of rotational patient assignment on emergency department length of stay’,
  229. D Hobbs, D Sklar, D Tandberg and S C Kinzman. (1999). Factors predicting patients who leave without being seen’, Academic Emergency Medicine 6:399-a.
  230. P J Hobday. (1988). Patients attending casualty from one group practice’,
  231. D R Jr Holleman, R L Bowling and C Gathy. (1996). Predicting daily visits to a walk-in clinic and emergency department using calendar and weather data’,
  232. J C Hollingsworth, C D Chisholm, B K Giles, W H Cordell and D R Nelson. (1998). How do physicians and nurses spend their time in the emergency department?’,
  233. S Horii, R Redfern, E Feingold, H Kundel, C Nodine, D Arnold, S Abbuhl, R Lowe and I Brikman. (2001). An automated results notification system for PACS’,
  234. S Horrocks, E Anderson and C Salisbury. (2002). Systematic review of whether nurse practitioners working in primary care can provide equivalent care to doctors’,
  235. R T Hsu, P C Lambert, M Dixon-Woods and J J Kurinczuk. (2003). Effect of NHS walk-in centre on local primary healthcare services: before and after observational study’,
  236. S C Hu. (1993). Computerized monitoring of emergency department patient flow’,
  237. S Hull, I R Jones, K Moser and J Fisher. (1998). The use and overlap of AED and general practice services by patients registered at two inner London general practices’,
  238. S Hull, Rees Jones, I and K Moser. (1998). Relation of rates of self referral to A&E departments to deprivation’,
  239. T Humphreys, F S Shofer, S Jacobson, C Coutifaris and A Stemhagen. (1992). Preformatted charts improve documentation in the emergency department’, Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:534-540. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  240. C J Hyde, I E Robert and A J Sinclair. (2000). The effects of supporting discharge from hospital to home in older people’,
  241. D R Ingram, D R Clarke and R A Murdie. (1978). Distance and the decision to visit an emergency department’
  242. (2003). Healthcare Improvement.
  243. I Jaarsma-van Leeuwen, E R Hammacher, R Hirsch and M Janssens. (2005). at www.ihi.org (search under ‘how to improve’)
  244. R F Jankowski and S Mandalia. (1993). Comparison of attendance and emergency admission patterns at accident and emergency departments in and out of London’,
  245. G A Jelinek, D Mountain, D O’Brien, I R Rogers and G Wilkes. (1999). Re-engineering an Australian Emergency Department: Can we measure success?’,
  246. B D Johnston, F P Rivara, R M Droesch, C Dunn and M K Copass. (2002). Behavior change counseling in the emergency department to reduce injury risk: a randomized, controlled trial’,
  247. J D Johnston, R A Jupp and W D Mitchell. (1997). Near-patient testing by proxy’,
  248. G Jones. (1993). Minor injury in the community’,
  249. G Jones and M J Playforth. (2001). The effect of the introduction of NHS Direct on requests for telephone advice from an accident and emergency department’,
  250. J Jones. (2002). Overcrowded VUMC emergency department turns to technology’, The Reporter: Vanderbilt Medical Centre [Online]. Available
  251. M Kamper, B D Mahoney, S Nelson and J Peterson. (2001). Feasibility of paramedic treatment and referral of minor illnesses and injuries’, Prehospital Emergency Care 5:371-378.
  252. J T Kanegaye, C W Vance, L Chan and N Schonfeld. (1997). Comparison of skin stapling devices and standard sutures for pediatric scalp lacerations: a randomized study of cost and time benefits’,
  253. M Karpiel and M Williams. (1998). Developing a fast track program’,
  254. D S Keehn, C Roglitz and M L Bowden. (1994). Impact of social work on recidivism and non-medical complaints in the emergency department’, Social Work in Health Care
  255. K Keith, Bocka Kobernick, M Krome, R and M Ross. (1989). Emergency department revisits’,
  256. G D Kelen, J J Scheulen and P M Hill. (2001). Effect of an emergency department (ED) managed acute care unit on ED overcrowding and emergency medical services diversion’,
  257. A Kellerman. (1994). Nonurgent emergency department visits: meeting an unmet need’,
  258. A M Kelly, A M Chirnside and C H Curry. (1993). An analysis of unscheduled return visits to an urban emergency department’,
  259. K A Kelly. (1994). Referring patients from triage out of the emergency department to primary care settings: one successful emergency department experience’,
  260. J Kendall, B Reeves and M Clancy. (1998). Point of care testing: randomised controlled trial of clinical outcome’,
  261. D Kennedy. (1996). Judge condemns insensitive NHS over dying boy’, The Times
  262. R A Kenny, D O’Shea and H F Walker. (2002). Impact of a dedicated syncope and falls facility for older adults on emergency beds’,
  263. E S Kilpatrick and S Holding. (2001). Use of computer terminals on wards to assess emergency test results: a retrospective audit’,
  264. King’s Fund. (2001). NHS Walk-in centres in London.
  265. T Kne, R Young and L Spillane. (1998). Frequent ED users: patterns of use over time’,
  266. J C Knott and A D Meyer. (2003). Impact of blood testing on patient disposition from the emergency department’,
  267. J Kokiko and T A Mayer. (1997). Advanced triage/advanced interventions: improving patient satisfaction’, Topics in Emergency Medicine
  268. P J Kolesar and L V Green. (1998). Insights on service system design from a normal approximation to Erlang’s delay formula’,
  269. U R Kotagal, P J Schoettker, H D Atherton, R W Hornung, D Bush, W J Pomerantz and C J Schubert. (2002). Relationship between early primary care and emergency department use in early infancy by the medicaid population’,
  270. I Krakau and E Hassler. (1999). Provision for clinic patients in the ED produces more nonemergency visits’,
  271. P Krochmal and T A Riley. (1994). Increased health care costs associated with ED overcrowding’,
  272. R L Krome. (1989). Observation care units’,
  273. D N Kyriacou, V Ricketts, P L Dyne, McCollough and D A Talan. (1999). A 5-year time study analysis of emergency department patient care efficiency’,
  274. M Lafrance and N Leduc. (2002). Prior use of a telephone-nursing triage service by patients of emergency services’,
  275. R J Lagoe, J C Kohlbrenner, L D Hall, M Roizen, P A Nadle and R C Hunt. (2003). Reducing ambulance diversion: A multi-hospital approach’, Prehospital Emergency Care 7:99-108. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  276. R Lammers, M Roiger, L Rice, D Overton and D Cucos. (2003). The effect of a new emergency medicine residency program on patient length of stay in a community hospital emergency department’,
  277. E J Langford, M A Ishaque, J Fothergill and R Touquet. (1994). The effect of the fast of Ramadan on accident and emergency attendances’,
  278. P Langhorne, M S Dennis, L Kalra, S Shepperd, D T Wade and C D A Wolfe. (2001). Services for helping acute stroke patients avoid hospital admission. (Cochrane Review)’,
  279. P Lanter, A Kulkarni, L Palivos, S Miller, R Roberts and R Rydman. (2001). Efficacy of follow-up appointments in decreasing subsequent ED visits and hospital admissions’, Academic Emergency Medicine 8:579.
  280. P Lanter, A Kulkarni, L Palivos, S Miller, R Roberts and R Rydman. (2001). The impact of primary care follow-up after an acute exacerbation of asthma on subsequent emergency department utilization and hospitalization’, Academic Emergency Medicine 9:394-b.
  281. G Larklin and S Lesko. (1999). What’s an emergency department (ED) visit worth? Willingness to pay out-of-pocket costs for minor injury varies for physician and non-physician clinicians (NPCs)’, Academic Emergency Medicine 6:403-a.
  282. F Lateef and V Anantharaman. (2000). The short-stay emergency observation ward is here to stay’,
  283. V A Lattimer, S George, F Thompson, E Thomas, M Mullee, J Turnbull, H Smith, M Moore, H Bond and A Glasper. (1998). Safety and effectiveness of nurse telephone consultation in out of hours primary care: randomised controlled trial’,
  284. F L Lau and K P Leung. (1997). Waiting time in an urban accident and emergency department - a way to improve it’,
  285. S Lau, T Walkley and J Harding. (2000). Don’t accept ED’s claim it’s too busy to benchmark emergency department’,
  286. H Law and J Sloan. (1999). Doctor’s assistants - do we need them?’, Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 16:114-116. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  287. A Leaman. (2001). The management of minor injuries-a personal view’,
  288. A M Leaman. (2003). See and treat: a management driven method of achieving targets or a tool for better patient care? One size does not fit all’,
  289. K M Lee, T W Wong, R Chan, C C Lau, Y K Fu and K H Fung. (1996). Accuracy and efficiency of x-ray requests initiated by triage nurses in an accident and emergency department’, Accident and Emergency Nursing
  290. E Lee-Lewandrowski, D Corboy, K Lewandrowski, J Sinclair, S McDermot and T I Benzer. (2003). Implementation of a pointof-care satellite laboratory in the emergency department of an academic medical center. Impact on test turnaround time and patient emergency department length of stay’,
  291. B A Lewis, W A McNabb, S U Rahman and S U Rahmas. (1994). The role of the social worker in the accident and emergency department of a district general hospital’,
  292. P Lewis. (1999). The role of paramedics in
  293. M Lindley-Jones and B J Finlayson. (2000). Triage nurse requested xrays - are they worthwhile?’
  294. N Lipley. (2000). Managers “hid” patients from snapshot survey’ Nursing Standard 14:4.
  295. S Liu, C Hobgood and J H Brice. (2003). Impact of critical bed status on emergency department patient flow and overcrowding’,
  296. London Ambulance Service NHS Trust. (2002). Evaluation of the costeffectiveness of direct triage and transportation to minor injuries units by ambulance crews. London: London Ambulance Service NHS Trust.
  297. R A Lowe and A B Bindman. (1997). Judging who needs emergency department care: a prerequisite for policy-making’,
  298. A Lowy, B Kohler and J Nicholl. (1994). Attendance at accident and emergency departments: unnecessary or inappropriate?’,
  299. R Lucas and S Sanford. (1998). An analysis of frequent users of emergency care at an urban university hospital’,
  300. A F Mabrook and B Dale. (1998). Can nurse practitioners offer a quality service? An evaluation of a year’s work of a nurse led minor injury unit’,
  301. D M Macgregor. (2003). Effect of weather on attendance with injury at a paediatric emergency departm ent’,
  302. A J Macleod and P Freeland. (1992). Should nurses be allowed to request x-rays in an accident and emergency department?’,
  303. A E Magalski, R S Benenson, S H Cavanaugh and E D Williams. (1999). A pneumonia clinical pathway decreases time to antibiotic treatment, length of stay and mortality’, Academic Emergency Medicine 6:438-b.
  304. D J Magid, T D Koepsell, N R Every, J S Martin, D S Siscovick, E H Wagner and W D Weaver. (1997). Absence of association between insurance copayments and delays in seeking emergency care among patients with myocardial infarction’,
  305. M Mahon. (2003). ED triage: Is a five-level triage system best?’,
  306. D A Maister. (1985). The psychology of waiting lines’,
  307. J Mallett and C Woolwich. (1990). Triage in accident and emergency departments’,
  308. J H Mandelberg, R E Kuhn and M A Kohn. (2000). Epidemiologic analysis of an urban, public emergency department’s frequent users’,
  309. K A Marill, E S Gauharou, B K Nelson, M A Peterson, R L Curtis and M R Gonzalez. (1999). Prospective, randomized trial of template-assisted versus undirected written recording of physician records in the emergency department’,
  310. H A Marinakis and F L Jr Zwemer. (2003). An inexpensive modification of the laboratory computer display changes emergency physicians’ Reducing Attendances and Waits
  311. G B Marks, J R Colquhoun, S T Girgis, K Hjelmroos, A B A Treloar, P Hansen, S H Downs and N G Car. (2001). Thunderstorm outflows preceding epidemics of asthma during spring and summer’,
  312. P J Marks, T D Daniel, O Afolabi, G Spiers and J S Nguyen-Van-Tam. (2002). Emergency (999) calls to the ambulance service that do not result in patient being transported to hospital: an epidemiological study’,
  313. G Marsh and M Dawes. (1995). Establishing a minor illness nurse in a busy general practice’,
  314. S Mason, J Wardrope and J Perrin. (2003). Developing a community paramedic practitioner intermediate care support scheme for older people with minor conditions’,
  315. E J Maynard and J S Dodge. (1983). Introducing a community health center at Mosgiel, New Zealand: Effects on use of the hospital accident and emergency
  316. M F McDermott, D G Murphy, R J Zalenski, R J Rydman, M McCarren, D Marder, B Jovanovic, K Kaur, R R Roberts, M Isola, E Mensah, R Rajendran and L Kampe. (1997). A comparison between emergency diagnostic and treatment unit and inpatient care in the management of acute asthma’,
  317. M S McDonagh, D H Smith and M Goddard. (2000). Measuring appropriate use of acute beds. A systematic review of methods and results’,
  318. H McGillis. (1996). Comprehensive program to improve care leads to reduced ED use by patients with asthma: One hospital’s experience’,
  319. B McGinty and J Ghiz. (1993). Developing a nursing managed central transportation service’,
  320. F McGuire. (1997). Using simulation to reduce length of stay in emergency departments’,
  321. M McKee, D N S Gleadhill and D Watson. (1990). Accident and emergency attendance rates: variation among patients from different general practices’,
  322. R K McKinley, D K Cragg, A M Hastings, D P French, T K Manku-Scott, S M Campbell, M O Roland and C Roberts. (1997). Comparison of out of hours care provided by patients’ own general practitioners and by commercial deputising services: A randomised Reducing Attendances and Waits
  323. C A J McLauchlan and A Harris. (1998). Providing primary care in accident and emergency departments’,
  324. E McLeod and M Olsson. (2004). Older frequent emergency department attenders’ appraisal of emergency department social work. A comparative UK and Swedish study [Online]. Available at www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/shss/mrc/olderpeople/mcleod.doc .
  325. M McManus. (2001). Emergency department overcrowding in Massachusetts: making room in our hospitals.
  326. E McNally, G de Lacey, P Lovell and T Welch. (1995). Posters for accident departments: simple methods of sustaining reduction in x ray examinations’,
  327. S Meek, J Kendall, J Porter and R Freij. (1998). Can accident and emergency nurse practitioners interpret radiographs? A multicentre study’,
  328. S W Meldon, L C Mion, R M Palmer, B L Drew, J T Connor, L J Lewicki, D M Bass and C L Emerman. (2003). A brief riskstratification tool to predict repeat emergency department visits and hospitalizations in older patients discharged from the emergency department’,
  329. V H Menec, C Black, L MacWilliam and F Y Aoki. (2003). The impact of influenza-associated respiratory illnesses on hospitalizations, physician visits, emergency room visits, and mortality’,
  330. L Meredith, S Kilgore, Steindel Smith and J A. (1998). Evaluating stat testing options in an academic health center: therapeutic turnaround time and staff satisfaction’,
  331. B Merritt, E Naamon and S A Morris. (2000). The influence of an urgent care center on the frequency of ED visits in an urban hospital setting’,
  332. Met Office. (2002). Forecasting the nation’s health. London: Met Office.
  333. D K Miller, L M Lewis, M J Nork and J E Morley. (1996). Controlled trial of a geriatric case-finding and liaison service in an emergency department’,
  334. L M Millward, A Morgan and M P Kelly. (2003). Prevention and reduction of accidental injury in children and older people -evidence briefing. London: Department of Health. Available online Reducing Attendances and Waits
  335. O Miro, M J Antonio, S Jimenez, A De Dios, M Sanchez, A Borras and J Milla. (1999). Decreased health care quality associated with emergency department overcrowding’,
  336. O Miro, M Sanchez, G Espinosa, B Coll-Vinent, E Bragulat, J Milla and J Wardrope. (2003). Analysis of patient flow in the emergency department and the effect of an extensive reorganisation’,
  337. E M Monninkhof, P D L P M van der Valk, J van der Palen, C L A van Herwaarden, M R Partidge, E H Walters and G A Zielhuis. (2004). Self-management education for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Cochrane Review)’,
  338. J J Monsuez, H Fergelot, B J Papon and J R LeGall. (1993). Early social work intervention in the emergency department’,
  339. G Morgan and M W Cooke. (2001). Shared Learning Opportunities Project. [Online]. Available
  340. L J Morrison, P R Verbeek, A C McDonald, B V Sawadsky and D J Cook. (2000). Mortality and prehospital thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis’,
  341. J Munro, J P Nicholl, A O’Cathain and E Knowles. (2000). Impact of NHS Direct on demand for immediate care: observational study’,
  342. A W Murphy. (1998). Inappropriate” attenders at accident and emergency departments I: Definition, incidence and reasons for attendance’,
  343. A W Murphy, G Bury, P K Plunkett, D Gilbney, M Smith and E Mullan. (1996). A comparison of general practitioner and usual medical care in an urban accident and emergency deaprtment in terms of process, health status and comparative costs’,
  344. A W Murphy, P K Plunkett, G Bury, C Leonard, J Walsh, F Lynham and S Johnson. (2000). Effect of patients seeing a general practitioner in accident and emergency on their subsequent reattendance: Cohort study’,
  345. R P Murray, M Leroux, E Sabga, W Palatnick and L Ludwig. (1999). Effect of point of care testing on length of stay in an adult emergency department’,
  346. (2001). of EMS Physicians.
  347. S Natsch, B J Kullberg, J F G M Meis, J van der Meer and M W. (2000). Earlier initiation of antibiotic treatment for severe infections after interventions to improve the organization and specific guidelines in the emergency department’,
  348. S Naumann and J A Miles. (2001). Managing waiting patients’ perceptions: The role of process control’,
  349. L Nazarko. (1998). Improving discharge: the role of the discharge coordinator’,
  350. B L Neades. (1997). Expanding the role of the nurse in the accident and emergency department’,
  351. D Nelson, K Coleman and J Walker. (1997). Why are you waiting? Formulating an information pamphlet for use in an accident and emergency department’, Accident and Emergency Nursing
  352. D S Nelson, J R Hoagland and N C Kunkel. (2000). Costs of sedation using oral midazolam: Money, time, and parental attitudes’, Pediatric Emergency Care
  353. New Jersey. (2001). Hospital Association.
  354. (2005). pdf (accessed 29
  355. T D New. (2000). Clinical decision support tools in A&E nursing: A preliminary study’, Nursing Standard 14:32-39. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  356. NHS Modernisation Agency. (2002). See and Treat. London: NHS Modernisation Agency. Available
  357. (2005). at http://www.modern.nhs.uk/esc/7902/Emer_case_study.pdf NHS Modernisation Agency.
  358. J Nicholl, J Turner and M Pickin. (2005). at www.modern.nhs.uk/emergency NHS Modernisation Agency. 2003b. Changing Workforce Programme: New ways of working in healthcare.
  359. J P Nicholl, K Gilhooley, P Parry, J Turner and S Dixon. (1996). The Safety and Reliability of Priority Dispatch Systems. Sheffield:
  360. T Nikolaus, N Specht-Leible, M Bach, P Oster and G Schlierf. (1999). A randomized trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment and home intervention in the care of hospitalized patients’,
  361. T W Nolan, M W Schall, D M Berwick and I Roessner. (1996). Reducing Delays and Waiting Times Throughout the Healthcare System. Boston: Institute for Healthcare Improvement.
  362. G Norris, Young Pong, S N Koenig, J Q Larson, T V Sheppard, L and J W Stout. (1999). An association between fine particles and asthma emergency department visits for children in Seattle’, Environmental Health Perspectives.
  363. T Novak and H Pross. (1983). The role of deputising agencies in the delivery of primary health care services’,
  364. R A O’Brien, M J Shapiro, R W Woolard, P S O’Sullivan and Stein. (1996). Inappropriate emergency department use: a comparison of three methodologies for identification’,
  365. P M O’Connor, K E Dowey, P M Bell, S T Irwin and C H Dearden. (1995). Unnecessary delays in accident and emergency Reducing Attendances and Waits
  366. K O’Grady, W G Manning, J P Newhouse and R H Brook. (1985). The impact of cost sharing on emergency department use’,
  367. P O’Meara. (2003). Would a prehospital practitioner model improve patient care in rural Australia?’,
  368. J S O’Shea, E W Collins and J C Pezzullo. (1984). An attempt to influence health care visits of frequent hospital emergency facility users’,
  369. R L Okin, A Boccellari, F Azocar, M Shumway, K O'Brien, A Gelb, M Kohn, P Harding and C Wachsmuth. (2000). The effects of clinical case management of hospital service use among ED frequent users’,
  370. D Oliver, A Hopper and P Seed. (2000). Do hospital fall prevention programs work? A systematic review’,
  371. J S Olshaker, R A Barish, J F Naradzay, D A Jerrard, E Safir and L Campbell. (1999). Prescription noncompliance: contribution to emergency department visits and cost’,
  372. M Olsson, O Edhag and U Rosenquist. (1986). Emergency care. Identification of psychosocial problems’,
  373. M Olsson and H Hansagi. (2001). Repeated use of the emergency department: qualitative study of the patient’s perspective’,
  374. J P Ornato. (1990). Role of the emergency department in decreasing the time to thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction’,
  375. C W Owens, Y Ben-Shlomo and F P Moore. (1993). Accident and emergency in London. Better primary care won’t affect self referrals’,
  376. P S Parfey, E Gardner, H Harnett Vasasour, J D McManamon, C McDonald, J and J Dawe. The feasibility and efficacy of early discharge planning initiated by the admitting department into acute care hospitals.
  377. W Parris, S McCarthy, A M Kelly and S Richardson. (1997). Do triage nurse-initiated X-rays for limb injuries reduce patient transit time?’ Accident and Emergency Nursing.
  378. P L Parsons and C T McMurtry. (1997). Short communications. In response: NP care/discharge planning saves money’, Nurse Practitioner 22:238-240. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  379. C Parvin, S Lo, S Deuser, L Weaver, L Lewis and M Scott. (1996). Impact of point of care testing on patients’ length of stay in a large emergency department’,
  380. C J Patterson and G P Mulley. (1999). The effectiveness of predischarge home assessment visits: a systematic review’,
  381. L Pearce. (2002). Complete turnaround. Tears, long trolley waits and a hostile local press characterised A&E in Bath’,
  382. A C Pell, H C Miller, C E Robertson and K A Fox. (1991). Effect of a ‘fast track’ admission for acute myocardial infarction on delay of thrombolysis’,
  383. D Pencheon, M Lambert and P Hadridge. (1998). So many unanswered questions: the emergency care system of the future’,
  384. C Petersen. (1985). Cut your paperwork with this 4-minute E.D. admission form’,
  385. L A Petersen, H R Burstin, A C O’Neil, E J Orav and T A Brennan. (1998). Nonurgent emergency department visits: the effect of having a regular doctor’,
  386. P J Petrie, Z Sadiq, J E Clague and M A Horan. (1999). Readmission of patient discharged from emergency departments’, Age and Ageing 28:499-500. Phadke, M.S. (n.d.) ‘Introduction to robust design: Taguchi Method’.
  387. Clemens Piehl, C J and J D Joines. (2005). at http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c020311a.asp
  388. J Pierce and A Kellerman. (1990). Bounces: An analysis of short-term return visits to a public hospital emergency department’,
  389. M L Plorde, K Peiguss and J Murray. (2001). Appropriate destination and patient treatment (ADAPT) pilot project. Seattle: Kent and Maple Valley Fire and Life Safety; Public Health-Seattle and King County; Health South; Multi Care and Maple Valley Urgent Care Clinics; Premera; Group Health;
  390. J E Pointer, M A Levitt, J C Young, S B Promes, B J Messana and M E J Ader. (2001). Can paramedics using guidelines accurately triage patients?’ Annals of Emergency Medicine 38:268-277. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  391. Frequent users of the emergency department: A program to improve care and reduce visits’,
  392. J L Pourriat, C Prudhomme, J M Laborie, M Nemorin and M Cupa. (1989). Emergency department: Effect of structure on care delay’, Annales Francaises d’Anesthesie et de Reanimation 8:Suppl:R73.
  393. D Powell and E Peile. (2000). Joint working. It’s a stitch up’,
  394. N Prasad, A Wright, K J Hogg and F G Dunn. (1997). Direct admission to the coronary care unit by the ambulance service for patients with suspected myocardial infarction’,
  395. J Preater. (2002). Queues in health’,
  396. S Priestley, A M Kelly, L Chow, C Powell and A Williams. (2003). Application of topical anesthetic at triage reduces treatement time for children with lacerations. A randomized controlled trial’,
  397. N C Proudlove, K Gordon and R Boaden. (2003). Can good bed management solve the overcrowding in accident and emergency departments?’
  398. T Quinn, T F Allan, D R Thompson, J Pawelec and R M Boyle. (1999). Identification of patients suitable for direct admission to a coronary care unit by ambulance paramedics: An observational study’, Pre-Hospital Immediate Care.
  399. B Rajmohan. (2000). Audit of the effect of a fast tracking protocol on transfer time from A&E to ward for patients with hip fractures’,
  400. S F Rajpar, M A Smith and M W Cooke. (2000). Study of choice between accident and emergency departments and general practice centres for out of hours primary care problems’,
  401. K Ranjadayalan, V Umachandran and A D Timmis. (1992). Fast track admission for acute myocardial infarction’,
  402. S W Rasmussen, R N Svendsen and K Gringer. (1997). Attendance pattern at an open casualty ward in Greater Copenhagen’, Ugeskrift for Laeger.
  403. M Raw, A McNeill and R West. (1999). Smoking cessation: evidence based recommendations for the healthcare system’, British Medical Journal 318:182-185. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  404. T S Rector, P J Venus and A J Laine. (1999). Impact of mailing information about nonurgent care on emergency department visits by Medicaid beneficiaries enrolled in managed care’,
  405. D A Redelmeier, P J Blair and W E Collins. (1994). No place to unload: A preliminary analysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of ambulance diversion’,
  406. D A Redelmeier, J Molin and R J Tibshirani. (1995). A randomised trial of compassionate care for the homeless in an emergency department’,
  407. R O Redfern, C P Langlotz, S B Abbuhl, M Polansky, S C Horii and H L Kundel. (2002). The effect of PACS on the time required for technologists to produce radiographic images in the emergency department radiology suite’,
  408. A D Redmond and N Buxton. (1993). Consultant triage of minor cases in an accident and emergency department’,
  409. T J Reeder and H G Garrison. (2001). Real-time assessment of the overcrowded emergency department’
  410. T J Reeder, D L Burleson and H G Garrison. (2003). The overcrowded emergency department: perception vs reality’,
  411. G Regan. (2000). Making a difference to A&E: analysis of the operational inefficencies in A&E departments in / major acute hospitals in Dublin’,
  412. K Rhee and A Dermyer. (1995). Patient satisfaction with a nurse practitioner in a university emergency service’,
  413. K J Rhee and J Bird. (1996). Perceptions and satisfaction with emergency department care’,
  414. M W Rich, V Beckham, C Wittenberg, C L Leven, K E Freedland and R M Carney. (1995). A multidisciplinary intervention to prevent the readmission of elderly patients with congestive heart failure’,
  415. D A Richards, J Meakins, J Tawfik, L Godfrey, E Dutton, G Richardson and D Russell. (2002). Nurse telephone triage for same day appointments in general practice: multiple interrupted time series trial of effect on workload and costs.
  416. D B Richardson. (2002). The access-block effect: relationship between delay to reaching an inpatient bed and inpatient length of stay’,
  417. D B Richardson. (2003). Prospective confirmation that total daily patient care time can measure emergency department overcrowding’, Academic Emergency Medicine 10:526-b-527-b.
  418. D B Richardson. (2003). Relationship between total daily patient care time and performance as a measure of emergency department efficiency’,
  419. D B Richardson. (2003). Prospective confirmation total daily patient time as a measure of emergency department overcrowding’, Academic Emergency Medicine 10:526-a.
  420. C Rieffe, P Oosterveld, D Wijkel and C Wiefferink. (1999). Reasons why patients bypass their GP to visit a hospital emergency department’, Accident and Emergency Nursing 7:217-225.
  421. J Riley. (2001). Creating a Generic Model of Accident and Emergency departments Glasgow: Glasgow Caledonian.
  422. Z M Rinderer. (1996). A study of factors influencing emergency department patients’ length of stay at one community hospital’,
  423. F P Rivara, H P Wall, P Worley and K D James. (1986). Pediatric nurse triage. Its efficacy, safety, and implications for care’,
  424. E Roberts and N Mays. (1997). Accident and emergency care at the primary-secondary interface: a systematic review of the evidence on substitution. London: King’s Fund Commission.
  425. M C Robertson, N Devlin, P Schuffham, M M Gardner, D M Buchner and A J Campbell. (2001). Economic evaluation of a community based exercise programme to prevent falls’,
  426. M T Garcia, R J J Menendez, Losa Campillo, J Mendieta, L J M Montabes, M E Arriola, B P Paniagua, C E and M I Alvarez. (1992). Length of stay in the hospital emergency department’,
  427. M Roland and R Morris. (1988). Are referrals by general practitioners influenced by the availability of consultants?’,
  428. M P Rosen, B Slewert, D Z Sands, R Bromberg, J Edlow and V Raptopoulos. (2003). Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain’,
  429. E E Rosenberg and I B Pless. (1993). Can effective parent education occur during emergency room visits?’ Family Medicine 25:598-601. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  430. A H Rosenstein, J B Hanel and C Martin. (2000). Timing is everything: Impact of emergency department care on hospital length of stay’,
  431. E Rosow, J Adams, K Coulombe, K Race and R Anderson. (2003). Virtual instrumentation and real-time executive dashboards. Solutions for health care systems’,
  432. M A Ross, A G Wilson and M McPherson. (2001). The impact of an ED observation unit bed on inpatient bed availability’, Academic Emergency Medicine 8:576.
  433. Z Rotstein, G Barabash, S Noy, R Wilf-Miron and M Shani. (1996). Allocation of emergency ward patients to medicine departments: Increasing physicians’ incentive to shorten length of stay’,
  434. Z Rotstein, R Wilf-Miron and B Lavi. (1997). The dynamics of patient visits to a public hospital ED: A statistical model’,
  435. Z Rotstein, R Wilf-Miron, B Lavi, D S Seidman, P Shahaf, A Shahar, U Gabay and S Noy. (2002). Management by constraints: Considering patient volume when adding medical staff to the emergency department’,
  436. B H Rowe, C Spooner, F M Ducharme, J A Bretzlaff and G W Bota. (2004). Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids. (Cochrane Review)’,
  437. K Rowland, A K Maitra, D A Richardson, K Hudson and K W Woodhouse. (1990). The discharge of elderly patients from an accident and emergency department: functional changes and risk of readmission’,
  438. D W Rucker, G Setnik, T A Brennan, H R Burstin and D B Richardson. (1999). Willingness to wait for an appointment rather than going to the ED’, Academic Emergency Medicine 6:538-a.
  439. W H Rutherford, R N Illingworth, Nelson Marsden, Redmond and Wilson. (1989). Accident and Emergency Medicine.
  440. B Ryan. (1995). Effects of formal triage on A&E waiting times’, Nursing Times 91:14.
  441. J M Ryan, S Sing, G Bryant, S Edwards and P Staniforth. (2005). Fast tracking’ patients with a proximal femoral fracture’, Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 13:108-110. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  442. S Sahnd. (1991). Making the ED waiting game a little easier to play’,
  443. M Sakr. (2000). Randomised controlled study comparing the care and clinical outcome of patients with minor injuries treated by nurse practitioners versus senior house officers (BL)’, Sheffield:
  444. M Sakr. (2003). Emergency Nurse Practitioners. [Online] Available
  445. M Sakr, J Angus, J Perrin, C Nixon, J Nicholl and J Wardrope. (1999). Care of minor injuries by emergency nurse practitioners or junior doctors: A randomised controlled trial.’
  446. C Salisbury. (1997). Observational study of a general practice out of hours cooperative: measures of activity’,
  447. C Salisbury. (1997). Postal survey of patients’ satisfaction with a general practice out of hours co-operative’,
  448. C Salisbury, M Chalder, T Manku-Scott, R Nicholas, T Deave, S Noble, C Pope, L Moore, J Coast, E Anderson, M Weiss, C Grant and D Sharp. (2002). National Evaluation of NHS Walk-in Centres.
  449. J Sanders. (2000). A review of health professional attitudes and patient perceptions on ‘innapropriate’ accident and emergency attendances. The implications for current minor injury service provision in England and Wales’,
  450. D A Sandler. (1999). Call to needle times after acute myocardial infarction. Paramedics in Derbyshire can admit direct to coronary care unit when they diagnose myocardial infarction’,
  451. V M Sands, P S Auerbach, J Birnbaum and M Green. (1995). Evaluation of a portable clinical blood analyzer in the emergency department’, Academic Emergency Medicine.
  452. Santos Martin, Bascunana Morejon de Giron, Lumbreras Garcia J, G Alvarez, M E, Martinez Pascual, B Correcher, P Hernando, C de Larramendi and A L Mancebo. (2000). Evaluation of the functional component underlying the frequent attendance to a hospital emergency service and its economic consequences’, Anales de Medicina Interna.
  453. L Sarkozi, E Simson and L Ramanathan. (2003). The effects of total laboratory automation on the management of a clinical chemistry Reducing Attendances and Waits
  454. J H Sarver, R K Cydulka and D W Baker. (2002). Usual source of care and nonurgent emergency department use’,
  455. C E Saunders and D A Gentile. (1988). Treatment of mild exacerbations of recurrent alcoholic pancreatitis in an emergency department observation unit’,
  456. C E Saunders, P K Makens and L J Leblanc. (1989). Modeling emergency department operations using advanced computer simulation systems’,
  457. S Saxena and E T Wong. (1993). Does the emergency department need a dedicated stat laboratory? Continuous quality improvement as a management tool for the clinical laboratory’,
  458. R W Schafermeyer and R A Brent. (2003). Hospital and emergency department crowding in the United States’,
  459. Y K Scherer and S Bruce. (2001). Knowledge, attitudes, and selfefficacy and compliance with medical regimen, number of emergency department visits, and hospitalizations in adults with asthma’, Heart and Lung:
  460. T Schmidt, R Atcheson, C Feduriuk, C Mann, T Pinney, D Fuller and K Colbry. (2000). Evaluation of protocols allowing emergency medical technicians to determine need for treatment and transport’,
  461. T Schmidt, K W Neely, A L Adams, C D Newgard, L Wittwer, M Muhr and R Norton. (2003). Is it possible to safely triage callers to EMS dispatch centers to alternative resources?’ Prehospital Emergency Care
  462. T A Schmidt, K V Iserson, G C Freas, J G Adams, T F Burke, A R Derse, L Goldfrank, N D Kalbfleisch, S M Keim, J R Krimm and G L Larkn. (1995). Ethics of emergency department triage: SAEM position statement’,
  463. S Schneider, F Zwemer, A Doniger, R Dick, T Czapranski and E Davis. (2001). A decade of emergency department overcrowding’, Academic Emergency Medicine 8:1044-1050. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  464. M J Schull and M Mamdani. (2001). How influenza outbreaks affect emergency department overcrowding and ambulance diversion’, Academic Emergency Medicine 8.574.
  465. M J Schull and M Mamdani. (2001). Influenza virus as a determinant of emergency department overcrowding’,
  466. M J Schull, L J Morrison, M Vermeulen and D A Redelmeier. (2003). Emergency department overcrowding and ambulance transport delays for patients with chest pain’,
  467. M J Schull, P M Slaughter and D A 2001a Redelmeier. Urban emergency department overcrowding: Defining the problem and eliminating misconceptions’,
  468. M J Schull, J P Szalai, B Schwartz and D A Redelmeier. (2001). Emergency department overcrowding following systematic hospital restructuring: trends at twenty hospitals over ten years’,
  469. E Scrivens, S Cropper and R Beech. (1998). Making Winter Monies Work: A Review of localy used methods for selecting and evaluating supply-side interventions. Keele:
  470. D C Seaberg and B A Macleod. (1998). Correlation between triage nurse and physician ordering of ED tests’,
  471. J Y Selby, B H Firman and B E Swain. (1996). Effect of a copayment on use of the emergency department in a health maintenance organisation’,
  472. B S Selden, P G Schnitzer, F X Nolan and J F Veronesi. (1991). The “no-patient” run: 2698 patients evaluated but not transported by paramedics’,
  473. J Semke, T VanDerWeele and R Weatherley. (1989). Delayed discharges for medical and surgical patients in an acute care hospital’,
  474. N M Shah, M A Shah and J Behbehani. (1996). Predictors of non-urgent utilization of hospital emergency services in Kuwait’,
  475. G Q Sharieff, C Hoecker and P D Silva. (2001). Effects of a pediatric emergency department febrile infant protocol on time to antibiotic therapy’,
  476. K N Shaw and J M Lavelle. (1998). VESAS: A solution to seasonal fluctuations in emergency department census’, Annals of Emergency Medicine 32:698-702. Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  477. R Shesser, T Kirsch, J Smith and R Hirsch. (1991). An analysis of emergency department use by patients with minor illness’,
  478. C H Shih. (1997). Effect of emergency physician-performed pelvic sonography on length of stay in the emergency department’,
  479. F Y Shih, M H Ma, S C Chen, H P Wang, C C Fang, R S Shyu, G T Huang and S M Wang. (1999). ED overcrowding in Taiwan: facts and strategies’,
  480. M Shrimpling. (2002). Redesigning triage to reduce waiting times’,
  481. C Shum, A Humphreys, D Wheeler, M Cochrane, S Skoda and S Clement. (2000). Nurse management of patients with minor illnesses in general practice: Multicentre, randomised control trial’,
  482. K Siddharthan, W J Jones and J A Johnson. (1996). A priority queuing model to reduce waiting times in emergency care’,
  483. S D Silberstein, P K Winner and J J Chmiel. (2003). Migraine preventive medicine reduces resource utilisation’,
  484. S Silvestri, S G Rothrock, D Kennedy, J Ladde, M Bryant and J Pagane. (2002). Can paramedics accurately identify patients who do not require emergency department care?’, Prehospital Emergency Care
  485. H K Simon, D McLario, R Daily, C Lanese, J Castillo and J Wright. (1996). Fast tracking patients in an urban pediatric emergency department’,
  486. A N Simpson, J Wardrope and D Burke. (2001). The Sheffield experiment: The effects of centralising accident and emergency services in a large urban setting’,
  487. D D Sin and S F Man. (2002). Low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy and risk of emergency department visits for asthma’,
  488. D Sinclair and S Ackroyd-Stolarz. (2000). Home care and emergency medicine: A pilot project to discharge patients safely from the emergency department’, Academic Emergency Medicine 7:951-954. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  489. A J Singer, J Chretien, A W Viccellio, F Schiavone and H C Thode. (2002). Insertion of IVs by residents: Does it save time?’
  490. P Singh. (1995). Managing chronic congestive heart failure in the home’, Home Healthcare Nurse
  491. S Singh. (1988). Self-referral to accident and emergency department: Patients’ perceptions’,
  492. G Sjönell. (1986). Effect of establishing a primary care health centre on the utilisation of primary health care and other outpatient care in a Swedish urban area’,
  493. D P Sklar, M Herring, P B Roth and R Besante. (1989). Emergency department technicians in a university-county hospital: A 15-year experience’,
  494. K G Small and R J Seime. (1986). The use of education to reduce utilization of emergency health care services: a case illustration’,
  495. D Smart, C Pollard and B Walpole. (1999). Mental health triage in emergency medicine’,
  496. C H Smeltzer and L Curtis. (1987). An analysis of emergency department time: laying the groundwork for efficiency standards’, Quality Review Bulletin.
  497. B Smith, S Appleton, R Adams, A Southcott and R Ruffin. (2001). Home care by outreach nursing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Cochrane Review)’
  498. S R Smith, R Woodard and R C Strunk. (2001). Follow-up after an ED visit for asthma’, Academic Emergency Medicine 8:418.
  499. W R Smith, L Culley, M Plorde, J A Murray, T Hearne, P Goldberg and M Eisenberg. (2001). Emergency medical services telephone referral programme’, Prehospital Emergency Care
  500. H Snooks, J Dale, N Kearsley, M Halter and J Redhead. (2001). Development and impact of emergency ambulance ‘“treat and ’refer” protocols for non-serious 999 patients’, London: London Ambulance Service.
  501. H Snooks, N Kearsley, J Dale and M Halter. (2000). New models of care for 999 callers with conditions that are neither life threatening nor serious: results of a national survey’, Pre Hospital Immediate Care 4:180-182. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  502. H Snooks, H Wrigley, S George, E Thomas, H Smith and A Glasper. (1998). Appropriateness of use of emergency ambulances’,
  503. D D Solomon and R W Johnson. (1999). ED pledge: See doc in 30 minutes or visit is free’,
  504. L S Sommers, K I Marton, J C Barbaccia and J Randolph. (2000). Physician, nurse, and social worker collaboration in primary care for chronically ill seniors’,
  505. V Soskoline and G K Auslander. (1993). Follow up evaluation of discharge planning by social workers in an acute care centre in Israel’, Social Work in Health Care
  506. R Sowney. (1999). Older people in A&E: A position statement’,
  507. D W Spaite, F Bartholomeaux, J Guisto, E Lindberg, B Hull, A Eyherabide, S Lanyon, E A Criss, T D Valenzuela and C Conroy. (2002). Rapid process redesign in a university-based emergency department: Decreasing waiting time intervals and improving patient satisfaction’,
  508. L Spillane, E Lumb and E Cobaugh. (1997). Frequent users of the emergency department: Can we intervene?’,
  509. Staffordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust. (2001). The deployment of community paramedic officers within urban areas of Staffordshire. Staffordshire: Staffordshire Ambulance Service.
  510. S J Steindel and P J Howanitz. (2001). Physician satisfaction and emergency department laboratory test turnaround time’,
  511. S Stewart, S Pearson, C G Luke, J D Horowitz, J J Bazarian, S M Schneider, V J Newman and J Chodosh. (1998). Effects of home-based interventions on unplanned re-admissions and out-ofhospital deaths’,
  512. (2005). Available
  513. I G Stiell, G A Wells, R H Hoag, M L Sivilotti, T F Cacciotti, P R Verbeek, K T Greenway, I McDowell and A A Cwinn. (2005). Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO
  514. G Stirling, J Higgins and M W Cooke. (2001). Violence in A&E departments: A systematic review of the literature’, Accident and Emergency Nursing 9:77-85.
  515. D Stoddart, A J Ireland, R Crawford and B Kelly. (1999). Impact on an accident and emergency department of Glasgow’s new primary care emergency service’,
  516. H Strachan, A Forster and G Stillie. (2001). The impact of a decision support system on the role of the nurse in a primary care emergency centre’,
  517. J H Straus, S T Orr and E Charney. (1983). Referrals from an emergency room to primary care practices at an urban hospital’,
  518. B C Sun, H R Burstin and T A Brennan. (2003). Predictors and Outcomes of Frequent Emergency Department Users’,
  519. J Sunyer, M Saez, C Murillo, J Castellsague, F Martinez and J M Anto. (1993). Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 5-year study’,
  520. P Szabo. (2003). Bed-der than ever’,
  521. S Tachakra, Uko Uche, C and A Stinson. (2002). Four years’ experience of telemedicine support of a minor accident and treatment service’,
  522. K M Takakuwa, F S Shofer, C Boedec and I M Reyes. (2003). The effect of bedside registration on patient encounter times in an urban academic emergency department’, Academic Emergency Medicine 10:525-a.
  523. C Taylor, A Forrest-Hay and S Meek. (2002). ROMEO: A rapid rule out strategy for low risk chest pain. Does it work in a UK emergency department?’,
  524. C J Taylor, F Bull, C Burdis and D G Ferguson. (1997). Workload management in A&E: Counting the uncountable and predicting the unpredictable’,
  525. Y Thakker, T A Sheldon, R Long and R MacFaul. (1994). Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital’, Archives of Disease in Childhood 70:488-492. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  526. D A Thompson and S L Adams. (1996). The full moon and ED patient volumes: Unearthing a myth’,
  527. D A Thompson and P R Yarnold. (1995). Relating patient satisfaction to waiting time perceptions and expectations: The disconfirmation paradigm’,
  528. D A Thompson, P R Yarnold, S L Adams and A B Spacone. (1996). How accurate are waiting time perceptions of patients in the emergency department?’,
  529. J Thompson. (1999). Coroners and lack of emergency resources’,
  530. H Thomson, H S Kohli and M Brookes. (1995). Non-emergency attenders at a district general hospital accident and emergency department’,
  531. J Thurston and S Field. (1996). Should accident and emergency nurses request radiographs? Results of a multicentre evaluation’,
  532. B L Timerding, W G Barsan, J R Hedges, T G Brott, P F VanLigten, J A Spilker and C P 1989 Olinger. Stroke patient evaluation in the emergency department before pharmacologic therapy’,
  533. G H Tinkoff, R E O’Connor and G J Fulda. (1996). Impact of a twotiered trauma response in the emergency department: Promoting efficient resource utilization’,
  534. J Townsend, M Piper, A O Frank, S Dyer, W R S North and T W Meade. (1988). Reduction in hospital readmission stay of elderly patients by a community based hospital discharge scheme: A randomised controlled trial’,
  535. Provision of clinically based information improves patients’ Reducing Attendances and Waits in Emergency Departments © NCCSDO 2005 244 perceived length of stay and satisfaction with EP’,
  536. S Trossman. (2000). Waiting for care: Too many patients, too little staff’,
  537. A Trout, A R Magnusson and J R Hedges. (2000). Patient satisfaction investigations and the emergency department’,
  538. S Trudeau and M Ladue. (1996). Wireless bedside registration in the emergency department’,
  539. V F Turner, P J Bentley, S A Hodgson, P J Collard, R Drimatis, C Rabune and A J Wilson. (2002). Telephone triage in Western Australia’,
  540. C C Tye. (1997). The emergency nurse practitioner role in major accident and emergency departments: Professional issues and the research agenda’,
  541. J C M Van Haastregt, J P M Diederiks, E van Rossum, L P de Witte and H F J M Crebolder. (2000). Effects of preventative home visits to elderly people living in the community: Systematic review’,
  542. C Van Heyningen, I D Watson and A E Morrice. (1999). Point-of-care testing outcomes in an emergency department’,
  543. P Velsted and M B Christensen. (2001). The effect of an out of hours reform on attendance at casualty wards. The Danish example’,
  544. N Vetter. (2003). Inappropriately delayed discharge from hospital: What do we know?’
  545. P Walley. (2003). Designing the accident and emergency system: Lessons from manufacturing’,
  546. P Walley. (2003). A Report into the Implementation of the Modernisation Agency’s ‘Ideal Design of Emergency Access’ (IDEA) Project.
  547. M Walsh and S Little. (2001). Study of a nurse practitioner working in a paramedic role’, Emergency Nurse 9:11-14. Reducing Attendances and Waits
  548. P Ward, J Huddy, S Hargreaves, R Touquet, J Hurley and J Fothergill. (1996). Primary care in London: An evaluation of general practitioners working in an inner city accident and emergency department’,
  549. D L Washington, C D Stevens, P G Shekelle, D W Baker, A Fink and R H Brook. (2000). Safely directing patients to appropriate levels of care: Guideline-driven triage in the emergency service’,
  550. D L Washington, C D Stevens, P G Shekelle, P L Henneman and R H Brook. (2002). Next-day care for emergency department users with nonacute conditions. A randomized, controlled trial’,
  551. J Wasson, C Gaudette, F Whaley, A Sauvigne, P Baribeau and H G Welch. (1992). Telephone care as a substitute for routine clinic follow-up’,
  552. J Weigland and L Gerson. (1995). Preventive care in the emergency department: Should emergency departments institute a falls prevention program for elder patients? A systematic review’,
  553. J V Weigland and L Gerson. (2001). Preventative care in the emergency department: Should emergency departments institute a falls prevention programme for elder Patients? A systematic review’,
  554. M Weinberger, E Z Oddone and W G Henderson. (1996). The Veterans Cooperative study group on primary care and hospital readmissions. Does increased access to primary care reduce hospital readmissions?’ New England
  555. P Whiting, C A Joseph, M Zambon, M Nunn, D Fleming and J M Watson. (1999). Influenza activity in England and
  556. C Willert, A T Davis, J J Herman, B B Holson and E Zieserl. (1985). Short-term holding room treatm ent of asthmatic children’,
  557. A G Williams, G A Jelinek, I R Rogers, J A Wenban and I G Jacobs. (2000). The effect on hospital admission profiles of establishing an emergency department observation ward’,
  558. J L Williams. (1998). Guidelines to reducing delays in administration of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction’,
  559. P Wilmshurst, A Purchase, C Webb, C Jowett and T Quinn. (2000). Improving door to needle times with nurse initiated thrombolysis’,
  560. S Wilson, M W Cooke, R Morrell, P Bridge and T Allan. (2002). A systematic review of the evidence supporting the use of priority dispatch of emergency ambulances’,
  561. J Windle and K Mackway-Jones. (2003). Don’t throw triage out with the bathwater’,
  562. J W Wisecup. (1992). Paramedics in the emergency department’,
  563. D J Witt. (1995). Transcription services in the ED’,
  564. J Woo, J B McCabe, D Chauncey, T Schug and J B Henry. (1993). The evaluation of a portable clinical analyzer in the emergency department’,
  565. K Wrenn and N Rice. (1994). Social work services in an emergency department: An integral part of the health care safety net’,
  566. X Xu, B Li and H Huang. (1995). Air pollution and unscheduled hospital outpatient and emergency room visits’,
  567. P Yoon. (2003). Emergency department fast-track system. Canada: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research.
  568. P Yoon, I Steiner and G Reinhardt. (2003). Analysis of factors influencing length of stay in the emergency department’,
  569. G P Young and R A Lowe. (1997). Adverse outcomes of managed care gatekeeping’,
  570. G P Young, M B Wagner, A L Kellermann, J Ellis and D Bouley. (1996). Ambulatory visits to hospital emergency departments. Patterns and reasons for use. 24 hours in the ED study group’,
  571. R G Zick and J Olsen. (2001). Voice recognition software versus a traditional transcription service for physician charting in the ED’,

If you think this content is not provided as Open Access according to the BOAI definition then please contact us immediately.