Our need for certainty in an uncertain world: the difference between special education and inclusion?


Despite decades of effort to achieve inclusive education systems, the emphasis upon special education persists. This paper explores the contradictory impulses which underpins these two concepts and consider whether they can be brought together. It does this through the development of two models; a model of certainty and a ‘model of uncertainty’. These models seek to represent and create a platform for thinking about the emergence and perpetuation of these two contradictory impulses and how these contradictions are experienced and might be resolved

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