HBV vaccination with Fendrix is effective and safe in pre-dialysis CKD population

Abstract

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a poor response to hepatitis B vaccine due to the immunodeficiency conferred from chronic uremia. A recombinant HB vaccine containing an improved adjuvant system AS04 (HBV-AS04) has been manufactured but scarce evidence exists on HBV-AS04 use among patients with CKD. Aim: To assess efficacy and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant vaccine (HBV-AS04) in a large cohort of CKD patients at pre-dialysis stage (with susceptibility to HBV infection). Methods: Patients were prospectively enrolled to receive four 20-mcg doses of HBV-AS04 by intramuscular route (deltoid muscle) at months 1, 2, 3, and 4. Anti-HBs surface antibody concentrations were tested at intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 months. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the parameters, which predicted immunologic response to HBV-AS04 vaccine. Results: One hundred and seven patients were included and 102 completed the study. At completion of vaccine schedule, the frequency of responders (anti-HBs titers 65 10 mIU/mL) was 95% (97/102) (mean anti-HBs antibody titers, 688.9 \ub1 385 mIU/mL), according to per-protocol analysis. Serum haemoglobin levels were greater in responder than non- or low-responder patients to HBV-AS04 (P = 0.04) and this was confirmed by multivariate analysis. The seroprotection rate at month 50 was 88% (30/34) with lower anti-HBs antibody titers (218.5 \ub1 269.6 mIU/mL, P = 0.001). No major side effects were observed. Conclusions: Our prospective study performed in a real-world setting showed a high immunogenicity and safety of HBV-AS04 vaccine in patients with CKD not yet on maintenance dialysis. Studies provided with longer follow-ups are under way to assess the durability of seroprotection in responders

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