<p>Whole-body cortisol (A), glucose (B), and lactate (C) content in adult fathead minnows caged at five sites along the Bow River, Alberta, from September to October 2016, prior to (0 min; orange boxplots) and after a standardized stressor (60 min; white boxplots). For each boxplot, the line within the box represents the median whole-body concentration (n = 7–10). The box ranges from the first to the third quartile (interquartile range), the whiskers extend to ±1.5 times the interquartile range, and values beyond this are denoted as black dots. Different letters indicate significant differences between sites (p<0.05). The inset indicates a significant main effect of time sampled post-stressor (TPS; p<0.05).</p

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