Transitional dynamics of the invading scenario.


<p>We set two gradients for parameter <i>p<sub>c_ii</sub></i>: 0.075 and 0.125; while other parameters are kept constant (<i>n</i><sub>o</sub> = <i>n</i><sub>i</sub> = 100, <i>p<sub>c_oo</sub></i> = 0.1, <i>a/b</i> = 100, <i>p<sub>m</sub></i> = 0.01). The mean and standard deviation of total productivity and number of occupations of the original society (<i>So</i>) and invader society (<i>Si</i>) are shown. In the first situation, the invader society is not as competent as the original society, and thus the original society is not affected; while in the second situation, the invading society is more competent, causes the extinction of the original society.</p

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