<p>(A) BMM were incubated with Tranilast (30, 50, 70 µM) in the presence of M-CSF (20 ng/ml) and RANKL (40 ng/ml). After 3 d, cells were fixed and stained for TRAP. Means of 4 groups are significantly different (<i>P</i><0.001). ***, <i>P</i><0.001 compared with V (vehicle)-treated cells. (B) Representative photos of A. Scale bar, 200 µm. (C) BMMs were incubated with Tranilast (70 µM) in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL for 48 h, total RNA was extracted and subjected to qPCR analysis for TRAP, calcitonin receptor (CTR), and c-Fos. *, <i>P</i><0.05; **, <i>P</i><0.01 with V. (D) RANKL-induced mature OC (∼1000 cells) was incubated with or without Tranilast (70 µM) on dentine slices for 24 h, and stained for pit formation. Representative photos of the resorption pits in V- and Tranilast-treated slices are shown. Scale bar, 50 µm. There was no significant difference between them in the areas of the resorption pits as determined with the ImageJ 1.37v program. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.</p

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