Abstract

<p>Illustrated is the activation state of the HSR in response to acute stress (red) or to the MSR (blue) seen in disease. Acute HSR activation, seen during acute stress insults, protects from and/or corrects misfolding and rapidly returns to basal levels, allowing normal biology to resume. In misfolding disease, chronic activation of the HSR alters the normal, physiologic Q-state (Q<sup>n</sup>) because of the continued expression of misfolded protein. Once chronically elevated (Q*), the folding environment becomes maladaptive as it fails to return to the Q<sup>n</sup> (light yellow area). Down-regulation of the MSR by siHSF1, sip23, or triptolide promotes a reduction of the Q*, which now falls within the proteostasis buffering capacity (green line), promoting a more normal cellular folding environment. This effect can be further improved (purple line) when combined with protein fold correctors (pharmacologic chaperones; PCs) which impart improved thermodynamic stability to the fold, or proteostasis regulators (PRs) that improve protein Q-state biology, improving function of disease-related misfolded protein and its proteome's associated environment, promoting abrogation of the chronic stress and improving health.</p

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