<p>(A and B) HepG2 cells were transfected with an empty vector or pcDNA3/HA-SHP. 18 hours after transfection, the cells were serum starved with medium containing 0.5% FBS for 20 hours. The cells were treated DMSO or 100 μM of CDCA for 6 hours in the absence or presence of MG132 and then exposed to 20%, 5% or 0.1% O<sub>2</sub> for 4 hours. 30 μg of total cell extracts are loaded for western analyses. (C to E) After starvation for 20hr, HepG2 cells were pretreated with GW4064 (GW) (5 μM or indicated dose) for 6 hours then exposed to 20%, 5% or 0.1% O<sub>2</sub> for the indicated hours. (C and E) qRT-PCR analyses of SHP or HIF-1α respectively. The expression level was normalized with the expression level of 18s rRNA. a, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.1; b, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.05; c, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01; d, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001. (D) Western analyses of HIF-1α, SHP and β-actin. (F) Western analyses of HIF-1α and β-actin in HepG2 cells which were treated with indicated doses of GW4064 and MG132 as described above. Ubiquitinated and original HIF-1α proteins are indicated. β-actin protein were examined in order to verify equal loading.</p

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