<p><b>(A)</b> IPEC-1 cells were cultured on glass (7 d), incubated for 1 h in buffer (HBSS), placed on microscopic stage and challenged with Anti A in the presence of DHE. Mean fluorescence of nuclei (regions of interest, white circles) was monitored over time. <b>(B)</b> Quantification of nucleic fluorescence of ethidium cation (ethidium cation is the oxidation product of DHE) binding to nuclei. Anti A (10 / 100 μM) or control buffer was applied in presence of DHE 1.5 min after starting the measurement. <b>(C)</b> Anti A (100 μM) triggered superoxide generation rate (DHE oxidation) of IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells after 1 h treatment (39°C). Cells were treated with lactate (lac, 25 mM); lac + inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT inhibitor, ARC155858, 10 μM); increased glucose (gluc, 4.5 g/L) or glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxyglucose (2DG, 10 mM). Glucose concentration was 1 g/L if not otherwise indicated. Slope of fluorescence increase of individual cell nuclei was calculated and normalised to the control. Statistical analysis was done by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc test. Different superscripts indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) differences.</p

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