<p><b>(A)</b> Three dimensional reconstruction of lactobacilli attached to IPEC-1 cells. <i>Lactobacillus amlylovorus</i> strain GRL1110 (arrows) was applied for 6 h on confluent IPEC-1 cells. The bacterial suspension was then carefully removed; cells and attached bacteria were fixed and stained with DAPI (nuclei, blue) and CM-Dil (plasma membrane, red). Confocal sections were reconstructed to obtain a 3D view. Note the thin, barely visible cytosolic layer above nucleus (*). (<b>B-H</b>) Actin structure of IPEC-1 cells treated with lactate and <i>Lactobacillus amylovorus</i> supernatants. IPEC-1 cells were cultured on glass, incubated as indicated and stained for F-actin (Phalloidin-PromoFluor 546) and nuclei (DAPI). (<b>B</b>) control buffer pH7, (<b>C</b>) Na-DL-lactate (25 mM, pH 7), (<b>D</b>) control buffer pH 4, (<b>E</b>) lactic acid pH 4. (<b>F-H</b>) supernatants of <i>Lactobacillus amylovorus</i> strains. (<b>F</b>) GRL1110, (<b>G</b>) GRL1112, (<b>H</b>) GRL1115. Predominantly basal F-actin fibre structure was reduced by lactic acid and bacterial supernatants (pH 4), (<b>I</b>) F-actin staining of freeze-section of porcine jejunal epithel. Note positive F-actin signal indicating the apical terminal web (arrowhead), the low F-actin signal at the lateral side and the faint signal in the basal region of the enterocytes (arrow). Bar: 5 μm.</p

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