Inter-pregnancy Weight Change and Risks of Severe Birth-Asphyxia-Related Outcomes in Singleton Infants Born at Term: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study

Abstract

<div><p>Background</p><p>Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. If a change of exposure (i.e., maternal body mass index [BMI]) over time influences risks, this would be consistent with a causal relationship between maternal BMI and offspring risks. Our objective was to investigate associations between changes in maternal BMI between consecutive pregnancies and risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes in the second offspring born at term.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>This study was a prospective population-based cohort study that included 526,435 second-born term (≥37 wk) infants of mothers with two consecutive live singleton term births in Sweden between January 1992 and December 2012.</p><p>We estimated associations between the difference in maternal BMI between the first and second pregnancy and risks of low Apgar score (0–6) at 5 min, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration in the second-born offspring. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for BMI at first pregnancy, maternal height, maternal age at second delivery, smoking, education, mother´s country of birth, inter-pregnancy interval, and year of second delivery. Analyses were also stratified by BMI (<25 versus ≥25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) in the first pregnancy.</p><p>Risks of low Apgar score, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration increased with inter-pregnancy weight gain. Compared with offspring of mothers with stable weight (BMI change of −1 to <1 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), the adjusted OR for a low Apgar score in the offspring of mothers with a BMI change of 4 kg/m<sup>2</sup> or more was 1.33 (95% CI 1.12–1.58). The corresponding risks for neonatal seizures and meconium aspiration were 1.42 (95% CI 1.00–2.02) and 1.78 (95% CI 1.19–2.68), respectively. The increased risk of neonatal seizures related to weight gain appeared to be restricted to mothers with BMI < 25 kg/m<sup>2</sup> in the first pregnancy. A study limitation was the lack of data on the effects of obstetric interventions and neonatal resuscitation efforts.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes increased with maternal weight gain between pregnancies. Preventing weight gain before and in between pregnancies may improve neonatal health.</p></div

    Similar works