Abstract

<p><b>A.</b> Subjects grasped the handle of a robotic manipulandum (the WristBOT) that could generate forces in the horizontal plane and torques around the vertical handle. A mirror-monitor system projected an image of the object and the task into the plane of the movement. <b>B.</b> Subjects rotated the object (green) clockwise and counter-clockwise (top inset) between visually presented targets (purple) and were required to keep the handle (grasp point) as still as possible within the central home region (grey). On exposure trials, the dynamics of the object (forces and torques) were consistent with rotating a mass (<i>m</i>) on the end of an 8 cm rod (<i>r</i>). Rotation of the object generates forces at the handle (<b>F</b>) that are approximately orthogonal to the orientation (θ) of the rod. In order to maintain the handle stationary while rotating the object, the subject must counteract these forces. The visual orientation of the object could be made ambiguous by presenting an ambiguous object (bottom inset). The rotation and translation of the visual object (normal or ambiguous) always tracked the rotation and translation of the WristBOT handle.</p

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