Schematic of the error tuned model (ETM).


<p><b>A</b>. Motor output. The modules each have a preferred direction uniformly covering the possible object orientations (here, 16 modules are shown by the grey peripheral objects). On the n<sup>th</sup> trial the modules each have an adaptive state indicated by the length of the vectors (left panel). In this example, the distribution of adapted states is consistent with recent experience of an object at 270°. On the current trial, the object is changed to an orientation of 0° (blue peripheral object). In this case, the visual contextual tuning gives the greatest weight to modules with preferred directions near 0° (middle panel). The motor contribution of each module (black vectors, right panel) is vector summed to produce the final motor output (green vector). The ideal motor output is shown by the blue vector, leading to an error (magenta vector). <b>B</b>. Motor adaptation is driven by two processes. The top row shows error-independent decay in which visual contextual tuning (middle panel) determines the decay of memory across modules. Here the memory decays most for the current context (0°) and less for more distant contexts. This leads to a set of reduced adaptive states (right panel; original states indicated by solid line). The bottom row shows error-dependent adaptation. The left panel shows the error (magenta) as well as its projection onto each module’s preferred direction (i.e. cosine tuning in which red vectors reflect negative magnitudes). This tuning reflects the extent that changing the adaptive state of a module will reduce the error. These projections are modulated by the visual contextual tuning (middle panel) which is greatest for the current context. This determines how each module updates its adaptive state in response to the error (right panel). The adaptive state on the next trial (n+1; far right panel) is the sum of the decayed states and the state updates, leading to a reduced error on the next trial for the same orientation of the object. Note that this schematic is not drawn to scale and exaggerates some of the changes so that they are visible. The ⊙ symbol represents element-wise multiplication across the modules.</p

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