Angle-multiplexed metasurfaces: encoding independent wavefronts in a single metasurface under different illumination angles


The angular response of thin diffractive optical elements is highly correlated. For example, the angles of incidence and diffraction of a grating are locked through the grating momentum determined by the grating period. Other diffractive devices, including conventional metasurfaces, have a similar angular behavior due to the fixed locations of the Fresnel zone boundaries and the weak angular sensitivity of the meta-atoms. To alter this fundamental property, we introduce angle-multiplexed metasurfaces, composed of reflective high-contrast dielectric U-shaped meta-atoms, whose response under illumination from different angles can be controlled independently. This enables flat optical devices that impose different and independent optical transformations when illuminated from different directions, a capability not previously available in diffractive optics

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