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Key environmental stress biomarker candidates for the optimisation of chemotherapy treatment of leukaemia

Abstract

The impact of fluctuations of environmental parameters such as oxygen and starvation on the evolution of leukaemia is analysed in the current review. These fluctuations may occur within a specific patient (in different organs) or across patients (individual cases of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia). They can be experienced as stress stimuli by the cancerous population, leading to an alteration of cellular growth kinetics, metabolism and further resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, it is of high importance to elucidate key mechanisms that affect the evolution of leukaemia under stress. Potential stress response mechanisms are discussed in this review. Moreover, appropriate cell biomarker candidates related to the environmental stress response and/or further resistance to chemotherapy are proposed. Quantification of these biomarkers can enable the combination of macroscopic kinetics with microscopic information, which is specific to individual patients and leads to the construction of detailed mathematical models for the optimisation of chemotherapy. Due to their nature, these models will be more accurate and precise (in comparison to available macroscopic/black box models) in the prediction of responses of individual patients to treatment, as they will incorporate microscopic genetic and/or metabolic information which is patient-specific.peer-reviewe

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