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Lattice topology and spontaneous parametric down-conversion in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays

Abstract

We analyze spontaneous parametric down-conversion in various experimentally feasible 1D quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays, with emphasis on the relationship between the lattice's topological invariants and the biphoton correlations. Nontrivial topology results in a nontrivial "winding" of the array's Bloch waves, which introduces additional selection rules for the generation of biphotons. These selection rules are in addition to, and independent of existing control using the pump beam's spatial profile and phase matching conditions. In finite lattices, nontrivial topology produces single photon edge modes, resulting in "hybrid" biphoton edge modes, with one photon localized at the edge and the other propagating into the bulk. When the single photon band gap is sufficiently large, these hybrid biphoton modes reside in a band gap of the bulk biphoton Bloch wave spectrum. Numerical simulations support our analytical results.Comment: 11 pages, 12 figure

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