Implicit Resolution


Let \Omega be a set of unsatisfiable clauses, an implicit resolution refutation of \Omega is a circuit \beta with a resolution proof {\alpha} of the statement "\beta describes a correct tree-like resolution refutation of \Omega". We show that such system is p-equivalent to Extended Frege. More generally, let {\tau} be a tautology, a [P, Q]-proof of {\tau} is a pair (\alpha,\beta) s.t. \alpha is a P-proof of the statement "\beta is a circuit describing a correct Q-proof of \tau". We prove that [EF,P] \leq p [R,P] for arbitrary Cook-Reckhow proof system P

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