Topological Response Theory of Abelian Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases in Two Dimensions


It has been shown that the symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases with finite Abelian symmetries can be described by Chern-Simons field theory. We propose a topological response theory to uniquely identify the SPT orders, which allows us to obtain a systematic scheme to classify bosonic SPT phases with any finite Abelian symmetry group. We point out that even for finite Abelian symmetry, there exist bosonic SPT phases beyond the current Chern-Simons theory framework. We also apply the theory to fermionic SPT phases with Zm\mathbb{Z}_m symmetry and find the classification of SPT phases depends on the parity of mm: for even mm there are 2m2m classes, mm out of which is intrinsically fermionic SPT phases and can not be realized in any bosonic system. Finally we propose a classification scheme of fermionic SPT phases for any finite, Abelian symmetry.Comment: published versio

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