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Hyper-accreting black hole as GRB central engine. I: Baryon loading in GRB jets

Abstract

A hyper-accreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate of central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by ννˉ\nu \bar\nu-annihilation or by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We consider baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind from a neutrino-cooling-dominated accretion flow. For a magnetically dominated BZ jet, we consider neutron-drifting from the magnetic wall surrounding the jet and subsequent positron capture and proton-neutron inelastic collisions. The minumim baryon loads in both types of jet are calculated. We find that in both cases, a more luminous jet tends to be more baryon poor. A neutrino-driven "fireball" is typically "dirtier" than a magnetically dominated jet, while a magnetically dominated jet can be much cleaner. Both models have the right scaling to interpret the empirical ΓLiso\Gamma-L_{\rm iso} relation discovered recently. Since some neutrino-driven jets have too much baryon loading as compared with the data, we suggest that at least a good fraction of GRBs should have a magnetically dominated central engine.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures; Accepted for publication in Ap

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