Fusaric acid-evoked oxidative stress affects plant defence system by inducing biochemical changes at subcellular level

Abstract

Fusaric acid (FA) is one of the most harmful phytotoxins produced in various plant–pathogen interactions. Fusarium species produce FA as a secondary metabolite, which can infect many agronomic crops at all stages of development from seed to fruit, and FA production can further compromise plant survival because of its phytotoxic effects. FA exposure in plant species adversely affects plant growth, development and crop yield. FA exposure in plants leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause cellular damage and ultimately cell death. Therefore, FA-induced ROS accumulation in plants has been a topic of interest for many researchers to understand the plant–pathogen interactions and plant defence responses. In this study, we reviewed the FA-mediated oxidative stress and ROS-induced defence responses of antioxidants, as well as hormonal signalling in plants. The effects of FA phytotoxicity on lipid peroxidation, physiological changes and ultrastructural changes at cellular and subcellular levels were reported. Additionally, DNA damage, cell death and adverse effects on photosynthesis have been explained. Some possible approaches to overcome the harmful effects of FA in plants were also discussed. It is concluded that FA-induced ROS affect the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system regulated by phytohormones. The effects of FA are also associated with other photosynthetic, ultrastructural and genotoxic modifications in plants

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