The evolution of nutritional care in children and young people with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a narrative review

Abstract

This is the final version. Available on open access from Wiley via the DOI in this recordData availability statement: Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analysed in this study.Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common paediatric malignancy in the world. Advances in treatment protocols have resulted in survival rates of >80% in most high‐income countries (HIC); however, children and young people (CYP) with ALL continue to face significant nutrition‐related challenges during treatment. Methods: This narrative review outlines the changing landscape of treatment and survivorship for CYP with ALL and the advances in nutrition knowledge that call for changes to clinical nutrition practice. Results: The incidence of ALL has remained stable in HIC; however, there have been significant advances in survival over the past 30 years. Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent in CYP with ALL at diagnosis, during treatment and in survivorship. Coupled with poor diet quality, high‐energy and saturated fat intakes, altered eating behaviours and inactivity, this necessitates the need for a shift in nutrition intervention. Undernutrition remains a concern for CYP with high‐risk treatment protocols where oral or enteral nutrition support remains a cornerstone of maintaining nutrition status. Conclusions: With improved treatment protocols and high survival rates, a shift to focusing on diet quality, prevention of excessive weight gain and obesity during treatment and survivorship is necessary

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