MicroRNA-Mediated Regulation of Histone-Modifying Enzymes in Cancer: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

Abstract

In the past decade, significant advances in molecular research have provided a deeper understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs, short non-coding RNA sequences, exert substantial influence on gene expression by repressing translation or inducing mRNA degradation. In the context of cancer, miRNA dysregulation is prevalent and closely associated with various stages of carcinogenesis, including initiation, progression, and metastasis. One crucial aspect of the cancer phenotype is the activity of histone-modifying enzymes that govern chromatin accessibility for transcription factors, thus impacting gene expression. Recent studies have revealed that miRNAs play a significant role in modulating these histone-modifying enzymes, leading to significant implications for genes related to proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. This article provides an overview of current research on the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate the activity of histone-modifying enzymes in the context of cancer. Both direct and indirect mechanisms through which miRNAs influence enzyme expression are discussed. Additionally, potential therapeutic implications arising from miRNA manipulation to selectively impact histone-modifying enzyme activity are presented. The insights from this analysis hold significant therapeutic promise, suggesting the utility of miRNAs as tools for the precise regulation of chromatin-related processes and gene expression. A contemporary focus on molecular regulatory mechanisms opens therapeutic pathways that can effectively influence the control of tumor cell growth and dissemination

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