Comparative analysis of codon usage patterns and phylogenetic implications of five mitochondrial genomes of the genus Japanagallia Ishihara, 1955 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Megophthalminae)

Abstract

Japanagallia is a genus of Cicadomorpha in the family of leafhoppers that are plant piercing-sucking insects, and it is difficult to distinguish by morphological characteristics. So far, only one complete mitochondrial genome data has been reported for the genus Japanagallia. Therefore, in order to better understand this group, we assembled and annotated the complete mitochondrial genomes of five Japanagallia species, and analyzed their codon usage patterns. Nucleotide composition analysis showed that AT content was higher than GC content, and the protein-coding sequences preferred to end with A/T at the third codon position. Relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed most over-represented codon ends with A or T. Parity plot analysis revealed the codon usage bias of mitochondrial genes was influenced by both natural selection and mutation pressure. In the neutrality plot, the slopes of regression lines were < 0.5, suggesting that natural selection was playing a major role while mutation pressure was of minor importance. The effective number of codons showed that the codon usage bias between genes and genomes was low. Correspondence analysis revealed that the codon usage pattern differed among 13 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on three datasets using two methods (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference), restored the Megophthalminae monophyly with high support values (bootstrap support values (BS) = 100, Bayesian posterior probability (PP) = 1). In the obtained topology, the seven Japanagallia species were clustered into a monophyletic group and formed a sister group with Durgade. In conclusion, our study can provide a reference for the future research on organism evolution, identification and phylogeny relationships of Japanagallia species

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