Protein quality control and aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum: From basic to bedside


Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest membrane-bound compartment in all cells and functions as a key regulator in protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and calcium balance. Mammalian endoplasmic reticulum has evolved with an orchestrated protein quality control system to handle defective proteins and ensure endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Nevertheless, the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum may occur during pathological conditions. The inability of endoplasmic reticulum quality control system to clear faulty proteins and aggregates from the endoplasmic reticulum results in the development of many human disorders. The efforts to comprehensively understand endoplasmic reticulum quality control network and protein aggregation will benefit the diagnostics and therapeutics of endoplasmic reticulum storage diseases. Herein, we overview recent advances in mammalian endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control system, describe protein phase transition model, and summarize the approaches to monitor protein aggregation. Moreover, we discuss the therapeutic applications of enhancing endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control pathways in endoplasmic reticulum storage diseases

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