Integrating planar circuits with superconducting 3D microwave cavities using tunable low-loss couplers


We design and test a low-loss interface between superconducting 3-dimensional microwave cavities and 2-dimensional circuits, where the coupling rate is highly tunable. This interface seamlessly integrates a magnetic antenna and a Josephson junction based coupling element with a cavity, and we demonstrate that the introduced loss from this integration only limits the quality factor to 4.5 million. The cavity external coupling rate can then be tuned from negligibly small to over 3 orders of magnitude larger than the internal loss rate with a characteristic time of 3.2 ns. This switching speed does not impose additional limits on the coupling rate because it is much faster than the coupling rate. Moreover, the coupler can be controlled by baseband signals to avoid interference with microwave signals near the cavity or qubit frequencies. Finally, the coupling element introduces a 0.04 Hz/photon self-Kerr nonlinearity to the cavity, remaining linear in high photon number operations

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