Dirac Equation for Photons: Origin of Polarisation

Abstract

Spin is a fundamental degree of freedom, whose existence was proven by Dirac for an electron by imposing the relativity to quantum mechanics, leading to the triumph to derive the Dirac equation. Spin of a photon should be linked to polarisation, however, the similar argument for an electron was not applicable to Maxwell equations, which are already Lorentz invariant. Therefore, the origin of polarisation and its relationship with spin are not completely elucidated, yet. Here, we discuss propagation of coherent rays of photons in a graded-index optical fibre, which can be solved exactly using the Laguerre-Gauss or Hermite-Gauss modes in a cylindrical or a Cartesian coordinate. We found that the energy spectrum is massive with the effective mass as a function of the confinement and orbital angular momentum. The propagation is described by the one-dimensional (1D1D) non-relativistic Schr\"odinger equation, which is equivalent to the 2D2D space-time Klein-Gordon equation by a unitary transformation. The probabilistic interpretation and the conservation law require the factorisation of the Klein-Gordon equation, leading to the 2D2D Dirac equation with spin. We applied the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-Bogoliubov theory of superconductivity to a coherent ray from a laser and identified a radiative Nambu-Anderson-Higgs-Goldstone mode for recovering the broken symmetry. The spin expectation value of a photon corresponds to the polarisation state in the Poincar\'e sphere, which is characterised by fixed phases after the onset of lasing due to the broken SU(2)SU(2) symmetry, and it is shown that its azimuthal angle is coming from the phase of the energy gap

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