Compounds Identified from Marine Mangrove Plant (Avicennia alba) as Potential Antiviral Drug Candidates against WDSV, an In-Silico Approach

Abstract

Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a type of retrovirus, which affects most of the adult walleye fishes during the spawning time. The virus causes multiple epithelial tumors on the fish’s skin and fins that are liable for more than 50% of the mortality rate of fish around the world. Till now, no effective antiviral drug or vaccine candidates have been developed that can block the progression of the disease caused by the pathogen. It was found that the 582-amino-acid (aa) residues long internal structural gag polyprotein of the virus plays an important role in virus budding and virion maturation outside of the cell. Inhibition of the protein can block the budding and virion maturation process and can be developed as an antiviral drug candidate against the virus. Therefore, the study aimed to identify potential natural antiviral drug candidates from the tropical mangrove marine plant Avicennia alba, which will be able to block the budding and virion maturation process by inhibiting the activity of the gag protein of the virus. Initially, a homology modeling approach was applied to identify the 3D structure, followed by refinement and validation of the protein. The refined protein structures were then utilized for molecular docking simulation. Eleven phytochemical compounds have been isolated from the marine plant and docked against the virus gag polyprotein. Three compounds, namely Friedlein (CID244297), Phytosterols (CID12303662), and 1-Triacontanol (CID68972) have been selected based on their docking score −8.5 kcal/mol, −8.0 kcal/mol and −7.9 kcal/mol, respectively, and were evaluated through ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion), and toxicity properties. Finally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was applied to confirm the binding stability of the protein-ligands complex structure. The ADME and toxicity analysis reveal the efficacy and non-toxic properties of the compounds, where MD simulation confirmed the binding stability of the selected three compounds with the targeted protein. This computational study revealed the virtuous value of the selected three compounds against the targeted gag polyprotein and will be effective and promising antiviral candidates against the pathogen in a significant and worthwhile manner. Although in vitro and in vivo study is required for further evaluation of the compounds against the targeted protein

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