Vibration Image Representations for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machines: A Review


Data Availability Statement: The vibration data used to produce some of the figures may be available on request from the first author, H.O.A.A.Copyright: ยฉ 2022 by the authors. Rotating machine vibration signals typically represent a large collection of responses from various sources in a machine, along with some background noise. This makes it challenging to precisely utilise the collected vibration signals for machine fault diagnosis. Much of the research in this area has focused on computing certain features of the original vibration signal in the time domain, frequency domain, and timeโ€“frequency domain, which can sufficiently describe the signal in essence. Yet, computing useful features from noisy fault signals, including measurement errors, needs expert prior knowledge and human labour. The past two decades have seen rapid developments in the application of feature-learning or representation-learning techniques that can automatically learn representations of time series vibration datasets to address this problem. These include supervised learning techniques with known data classes and unsupervised learning or clustering techniques with data classes or class boundaries that are not obtainable. More recent developments in the field of computer vision have led to a renewed interest in transforming the 1D time series vibration signal into a 2D image, which can often offer discriminative descriptions of vibration signals. Several forms of features can be learned from the vibration images, including shape, colour, texture, pixel intensity, etc. Given its high performance in fault diagnosis, the image representation of vibration signals is receiving growing attention from researchers. In this paper, we review the works associated with vibration image representation-based fault detection and diagnosis for rotating machines in order to chart the progress in this field. We present the first comprehensive survey of this topic by summarising and categorising existing vibration image representation techniques based on their characteristics and the processing domain of the vibration signal. In addition, we also analyse the application of these techniques in rotating machine fault detection and classification. Finally, we briefly outline future research directions based on the reviewed works.This research received no external funding

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