Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Lingkungan Pajanan Karbon Monoksida (CO) Pada Pedagang Sate di Palembang

Abstract

Level of pollutants in the air that humans breathe every day will impact health for now or future. The occupational risk of satay traders who are exposed to carbon monoxide from grilling food using charcoal is often not realized. The aims of this study are to measure carbon monoxide levels exposed to satay traders in Palembang and examine the magnitude of the risk in several future time periods. This study is used a quantitative design with environmental health’s risk analysis approach. Assessment of carbon monoxide is used Carbon Monoxide Meter. Respondents were selected through the purposive sampling technique by as many as 58 persons. They were selected by criteria: used charcoal as fuel and were the street vendor. Carbon monoxide exposure was in the range of 12.3 – 163 mg/m3. The intake value is influenced by the concentration of the risk agent, rate of intake, as well as duration, frequency, and time of exposure. The results showed real-time intake value was 20,62 while the lifetime intake was 78,60. Realtime RQ calculated CO exposure will be risky if exposed within a period of 30 years. However, it was found that almost 40 percent of respondents had risk based on real-time RQ values with each duration. Analysis of CO exposure’s risk on satay traders is predicted to occur at the 10th year of exposure, which is influenced by the increasing exposure time. For reducing the level of CO exposure, satay traders are advised to use personal protective equipment such as masks and may consider using smokeless food grills/electric grills.Kadar polutan dalam udara yang manusia hirup setiap hari akan berdampak terhadap kesehatannya saat ini maupun di masa depan. Risiko pekerjaan sebagai pedagang sate yang terpapar karbon monoksida (CO) dari hasil pembakaran makanan menggunakan arang sering kali tidak disadari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kadar karbon monoksida terpajan pada pedagang sate yang menggunakan arang di kota Palembang serta menggambarkan besaran risiko tersebut dalam beberapa periode waktu mendatang. Jenis penelitian deskriptif dengan analisis kuantitatif menggunakan pendekatan analisis risiko kesehatan lingkungan. Pengukuran CO menggunakan alat Carbon Monoxide Meter. Sampel dipilih melalui teknik purposive sampling sebanyak 58 orang. Kriteria pengambilan sampel yaitu menggunakan arang sebagai bahan bakar dan merupakan pedagang kaki lima. Pajanan karbon monoksida berada pada rentang 12,3 – 163 mg/m3. Nilai intake dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi agen risiko, laju asupan, serta durasi, frekuensi, dan waktu pajanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan nilai intake realtime sebesar 20,62 sedangkan intake lifetime 78,60. Perhitungan RQ realtime menunjukkan bahwa pajanan CO akan berisiko jika terpapar dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun. Namun, ditemukan sebanyak hamper 40 persen responden memiliki risiko berdasarkan nilai RQ realtime dengan durasi pajanan masing-masing responden. Analisis risiko paparan CO pada pedagang sate diprediksi akan terjadi pada waktu pajanan ke-10 tahun yang dipengaruhi oleh waktu pajanan yang bertambah. Untuk mengurangi kadar pajanan CO tersebut, pedagang sate disarankan menggunakan alat pelindung diri seperti masker serta dapat mempertimbangkan untuk menggunakan alat pemanggang makanan tanpa asap/pemanggang listrik

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