Antioxidation, Anti-Inflammation, and Regulation of SRD5A Gene Expression of Oryza sativa cv. Bue Bang 3 CMU Husk and Bran Extracts as Androgenetic Alopecia Molecular Treatment Substances

Abstract

Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to the NRCT for supporting research facilities (grant no. NRCT5-RRI63004-P05), Chiang Mai University for the Fundamental Fund 2022, and the partially support grant. We would like to thank Lanna Rice Research Center, Chiang Mai University, and Saleekam Trading Co., Ltd., Thailand, for providing the rice bran and husk samples.Data Availability Statement: The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.Funding: This research project is supported by National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT): NRCT5-RRI63004-P05, Fundamental Fund 2022, Chiang Mai University, and partially supported by Chiang Mai University.Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), a hair loss disorder, is a genetic predisposition to sensitive androgens, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Unfortunately, current treatments with synthetic medicines contain a restricted mechanism along with side effects, whereas the bioactive constituents of plant extracts are multifunctional, with fewer side effects. The massive amounts of rice husk and bran are agricultural wastes that may cause pollution and environmental problems. Owing to these rationales, the local rice variety, Bue Bang 3 CMU (BB3CMU), which is grown in northern Thailand, was evaluated for the valuable utilization of rice by-products, husk (BB3CMU-H) and bran (BB3CMU-RB) extracts, for AGA treatment regarding antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-androgenic activities, and the characterization of bioactive compounds. Our study verified that BB3CMU-H had the highest level of polyphenols, contributing to its greater antioxidant activity. Conversely, BB3CMU-RB was the predominant source of tocopherols, resulting in better anti-androgenic activities regarding the downregulation of steroid 5α-reductase genes (SRD5A). Notably, anti-inflammation via the attenuation of nitric oxide productions was observed in BB3CMU-H (0.06 ± 0.13 μM) and BB3CMU-RB (0.13 ± 0.01 μM), which were significantly comparable to diclofenac sodium salt (0.13 ± 0.19 μM). Therefore, the combination of BB3CMU-H and BB3CMU-RB could be utilized in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications for AGA patientsNational Research Council of Thailand (NRCT): NRCT5-RRI63004-P05Fundamental Fund 2022Chiang Mai Universit

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