Calculation of the energy levels of Ge, Sn, Pb and their ions in the VNβˆ’4V^{N-4} approximation


Energy levels of germanium, tin and lead together with their single, double and triple ionized positive ions have been calculated using the VNβˆ’MV^{N-M} approximation suggested in the previous work (Dzuba, physics/0501032) (M=4 - number of valence electrons). Initial Hartree-Fock calculations are done for the quadruply ionized ions with all valence electrons removed. The core-valence correlations are included beyond the second-order of the many-body perturbation theory. Interaction between valence electrons is treated by means of the configuration interaction technique. It is demonstrated that accurate treatment of the core-valence correlations lead to systematic improvement of the accuracy of calculations for all ions and neutral atoms.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables; submitted to Phys. Rev.

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