215,173 research outputs found

    Cumulant Expansions and the Spin-Boson Problem

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    The dynamics of the dissipative two-level system at zero temperature is studied using three different cumulant expansion techniques. The relative merits and drawbacks of each technique are discussed. It is found that a new technique, the non-crossing cumulant expansion, appears to embody the virtues of the more standard cumulant methods.Comment: 26 pages, LaTe

    Frequency stability review

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    Certain aspects of the description and measurement of oscillator stability are treated. Topics covered are time and frequency deviations, Allan variance, the zero-crossing counter measurement technique, frequency drift removal, and the three-cornered hat

    Prediction Model to Estimate the Zero Crossing Point for Faulted Waveforms

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    In any power system, fault means abnormal flow of current. Insulation breakdown is the cause of fault generation. Different factors can cause the breakdown: Wires drifting together in the wind, Lightning ionizing air, wires with contacts of animals and plants, Salt spray or pollution on insulators. The common type of faults on a three phase system are single line-to-ground (SLG), Line-to-line faults (LL), double line-to-ground (DLG) faults, and balanced three phase faults. And these faults can be symmetrical (balanced) or Unsymmetrical (imbalanced).In this Study, a technique to predict the zero crossing point has been discussed and simulated. Zero crossing point prediction for reliable transmission and distribution plays a significant role. Electrical power control switching works in zero crossing point when a fault occurs. The precision of measuring zero crossing point for syncing power system control and instrumentation requires a thoughtful approach to minimize noise and external signals from the corrupted waveforms A faulted current waveform with estimated faulted phase/s, the technique is capable of identifying the time of zero crossing point. Proper Simulation has been organized on MATLAB R2012a

    Significant edges in the case of a non-stationary Gaussian noise

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    In this paper, we propose an edge detection technique based on some local smoothing of the image followed by a statistical hypothesis testing on the gradient. An edge point being defined as a zero-crossing of the Laplacian, it is said to be a significant edge point if the gradient at this point is larger than a threshold s(\eps) defined by: if the image II is pure noise, then \P(\norm{\nabla I}\geq s(\eps) \bigm| \Delta I = 0) \leq\eps. In other words, a significant edge is an edge which has a very low probability to be there because of noise. We will show that the threshold s(\eps) can be explicitly computed in the case of a stationary Gaussian noise. In images we are interested in, which are obtained by tomographic reconstruction from a radiograph, this method fails since the Gaussian noise is not stationary anymore. But in this case again, we will be able to give the law of the gradient conditionally on the zero-crossing of the Laplacian, and thus compute the threshold s(\eps). We will end this paper with some experiments and compare the results with the ones obtained with some other methods of edge detection

    Purwarupa Modem Audio Berbasis Mikrokontroler dengan Teknik Direct Digital Synthesizer dan Zero Crossing Detector

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    A microcontroller based audio modem system by means of Digital Direct Synthesizer (DDS) and Zero Crossing Detector (ZCD) technique is proposed in this paper. The modem operates in audible frequency range. The function of this modem is to transmit digital data through analog audio channel. In the modulator, DDS is used to generate sinusoidal audio signal. The modulation technique is 16-tones M-Ary Frequency Shift Keying (M-FSK) or MFSK16. In the demodulator, ZCD technique is used to measure the  sinusoidal signal periods. The experiments were done in the physical layer, to analyze the optimal channel bandwidth, transfer rate, and Bit Error Rate (BER). It was found that the optimal channel bandwidth for each tone is proportional to the frequency, due to fixed error DDS calculation. The performances of the modem are capable to modulatedata in transfer rate 200 bps and BER 2x10−3 without channel coding improvement.keywords: Audio modem, DDS, M-FSK, Zero Crossing Detector, GSMSistem modem audio berbasis mikrokontroler dengan teknik Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) dan Zero Crossing Detector (ZCD) diusulkan pada tulisan ini. Modem ini beroperasi pada frekuensi suara audible. Modem ini berfungsi untuk melewatkan data digital melalui kanal audio analog. Pada sisi modulator, digunakan teknik DDS untuk menghasilkan gelombang sinus audio. Teknik modulasi yang digunakan adalah 16 tone M-Ary Frequency Shift Keying (M-FSK) atau MFSK16. Pada sisi demodulator, teknik ZCD digunakan untuk mengukur perioda gelombang sinus. Pengujian dilakukan pada layer fisik modem dengan mencari lebar kanal yang optimal untuk masing-masing tone, nilai transfer rate, dan nilai Bit Error Rate (BER). Hasil pengujian menunjukkan lebar kanal optimal untuk masing-masing tone berbanding lurus dengan besar frekuensi, karena errorperhitungan frekuensi oleh DDS bersifat tetap. Performansi modem mencapai nilai transfer rate 200 bps dengan BER 2x10−3, tanpa penambahan pengkodean kanal.kata kunci: Modem audio, DDS, M-FSK, Zero Crossing Detector, GS

    Kink estimation in stochastic regression with dependent errors and predictors

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    In this article we study the estimation of the location of jump points in the first derivative (referred to as kinks) of a regression function \mu in two random design models with different long-range dependent (LRD) structures. The method is based on the zero-crossing technique and makes use of high-order kernels. The rate of convergence of the estimator is contingent on the level of dependence and the smoothness of the regression function \mu. In one of the models, the convergence rate is the same as the minimax rate for kink estimation in the fixed design scenario with i.i.d. errors which suggests that the method is optimal in the minimax sense.Comment: 35 page

    Optical Devices for Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates

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    The manipulation of cold atoms with optical fields is a very promising technique for a variety of applications ranging from laser cooling and trapping to coherent atom transport and matter wave interferometry. Optical fields have also been proposed as interesting tools for quantum information processing with cold atoms. In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a cold 87Rb atomic cloud falling in the gravity field in the presence of two crossing dipole guides. The cloud is either deflected or split between the two branches of this guide. We explore the possibilities of optimization of this device and present preliminary results obtained in the case of zero-temperature dilute Bose-Einstein condensates.Comment: Proceedings of the International Spectroscopy Conference ISC-2007, Sousse, Tunisi

    Detecting the zero-crossing message to achieve low bit transmission over H-bridge inverter

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    Home automation and smart grid development is motivated by many advantageous situations that include the demands on renewable energy and the advantages provided by power line communications technology (PLC). The integration of solar energy into conventional grid implies the control of different modules included in the system. Remote control seems to be the control mode by excellence, in which communication is the main point to focus on. The pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme used to control the inverter is also used to modulate the zero-crossing point of the output sine wave of the inverter, to transfer data. The zero-crossing modulation technique is proposed and basic elements to construct the model are proposed. Simulated constellations of the received signal are presented
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