19,161 research outputs found

    Nuclear shape instability caused by lamin A deregulation promotes invasiveness in pediatric bone sarcomas: from nucleo-cytoskeleton dynamics to novel therapeutic opportunities

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    Osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) are the two most frequent primary bone tumors, in which metastases remain the most relevant adverse prognostic factor. Lamin A is the main constituent of the nuclear lamina, with a fundamental role in maintaining the connection between nucleus and cytoskeleton (through LINC complex proteins interactions), and its alterations can be implicated in tumor progression. We investigated how nucleo-cytoskeleton dynamics is influenced by lamin A modulation in OS and EWS, demonstrating that both these cancer models had low levels of lamin A, which are linked to a significantly more marked nuclear misshaping. In our in vitro studies, reduced levels of lamin A promoted migratory abilities in these tumors. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by gene expression analyses on EWS patient samples, showing that LMNA levels were significantly lower in metastatic lesions compared to primary tumors and that patients with low LMNA had a significant worse overall survival. We also found that LMNA expression significantly impaired EWS metastases formation in vivo. We demonstrated that low lamin A expression was linked to a severe mislocalization of LINC complex proteins, thus disrupting nucleo-cytoskeleton interactions, with a corresponding gain in malignant properties, which resulted in increased invasiveness. Lamin A overexpression or its accumulation by a statin-based pharmacological treatment allowed us to reconstitute a functional nucleo-cytoskeleton interplay, which resulted in significant downmodulation of ROCK2 and YAP, two crucial drivers of EWS aggressiveness. Our study demonstrated that lamin A is a favorable mediator of nuclear shape stability in bone sarcomas, and its modulation rescues LINC complex protein localization and regulates mechano-signaling pathways, thus promoting a less aggressive cancer phenotype. We also identified statins, already employed in clinical practice, as a tool capable to increase lamin A levels, and to reconstitute functional nucleo-cytoskeletal dynamics, resulting in reduced cellular migration

    The role of cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer metastasis

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    Breast cancer deaths are primarily caused by metastasis. There are several treatment options that can be used to treat breast cancer. There are, however, a limited number of treatments that can either prevent or inhibit the spread of breast tumor metastases. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are needed. Studies have increasingly focused on the importance of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in metastasis of breast cancer. As the most abundant cells in the TME, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play important roles in cancer pathogenesis. They can remodel the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and engage in crosstalk with cancer cells or other stroma cells by secreting growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines, as well as components of the ECM, which assist the tumor cells to invade through the TME and cause distant metastasis. Clinically, CAFs not only foster the initiation, growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer but also serve as biomarkers for diagnosis, therapy, and prediction of prognosis. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics and subtypes of CAFs and their functions in breast cancer metastasis, focusing on their important roles in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that CAFs are vital partners of breast cancer cells that assist metastasis and may represent ideal targets for prevention and treatment of breast cancer metastasis

    Elastomeric porous poly(glycerol sebacate) methacrylate (PGSm) microspheres as 3D scaffolds for chondrocyte culture and cartilage tissue engineering

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    Cartilage defects can be difficult to treat; therefore, tissue engineering of cartilage is emerging as a promising potential therapy. One interesting area of research explores the delivery of cells to the cartilage defect via scaffold-based cell delivery vehicles and microsurgery. This study explores the use of novel poly(glycerol sebacate) methacrylate (PGSm)-polymerised high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) microspheres as scaffolds with embedded cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Porous microsphere scaffolds (100 µm–1 mm diameter) were produced from emulsions consisting of water and a methacrylate-based photocurable resin of poly(glycerol sebacate). These resins were used in conjunction with a T-junction fluidic device and an ultraviolet (UV) curing lamp to produce porous microspheres with a tuneable size. This technique produced biodegradable PGSm microspheres with similar mechanical properties to cartilage. We further explore these microspheres as scaffolds for three-dimensional culture of chondrocytes. The microspheres proved to be very efficient scaffolds for primary chondrocyte culture and were covered by a dense extracellular matrix (ECM) network during the culture period, creating a tissue disk. The presence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen-II was confirmed, highlighting the utility of the PGSm microspheres as a delivery vehicle for chondrocytes. A number of imaging techniques were utilised to analyse the tissue disk and develop methodologies to characterise the resultant tissue. This study highlights the utility of porous PGSm microspheres for cartilage tissue engineering

    Putative Role of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

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    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematologic malignancies characterized by gene mutations that promote myeloproliferation and resistance to apoptosis via constitutively active signaling pathways, with Janus kinase 2-signal transducers and the activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) axis as a core part. Chronic inflammation has been described as a pivot for the development and advancement of MPNs from early stage cancer to pronounced bone marrow fibrosis, but there are still unresolved questions regarding this issue. The MPN neutrophils are characterized by upregulation of JAK target genes, they are in a state of activation and with deregulated apoptotic machinery. Deregulated neutrophil apoptotic cell death supports inflammation and steers them towards secondary necrosis or neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, a trigger of inflammation both ways. NETs in proinflammatory bone marrow microenvironment induce hematopoietic precursor proliferation, which has an impact on hematopoietic disorders. In MPNs, neutrophils are primed for NET formation, and even though it seems obvious for NETs to intervene in the disease progression by supporting inflammation, no reliable data are available. We discuss in this review the potential pathophysiological relevance of NET formation in MPNs, with the intention of contributing to a better understanding of how neutrophils and neutrophil clonality can orchestrate the evolution of a pathological microenvironment in MPNs

    Efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab with preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

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    BackgroundThis study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with resectable locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (LA-HNSCCs).MethodsIn this prospective, single-arm, single-centre clinical trial, patients meeting the inclusion criteria were treated with preoperative neoadjuvant therapy with 200 mg pembrolizumab combined with 75 mg/m2 cisplatin and 175 mg/m2 paclitaxel. This was followed by surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy. The primary endpoint was the postoperative pathological complete response (pCR) rate. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 26.ResultsA total of 22 patients were enrolled. The location of primary lesion showed: hypopharynx were 15 (68.2%), oropharynx were 6 (27.3%) and oral cavity was 1 (4.5%). The postoperative pCR rate, was 36.4% (8/22), and there was no delay to surgery due to adverse drug reactions. The rate of laryngeal function preservation was 90.9% (20/22). Delayed wound healing was the main surgical complication, with an incidence of 22.7% (5/22). The median follow-up time was 9.5 months, and only 1 patient (4.55%) suffered a regional recurrence.ConclusionPreoperative treatment with pembrolizumab and chemotherapy in resectable LA-HNSCC has a high pCR rate with no significant impact on surgical safety. This treatment was found to increase the rate of laryngeal function preservation. However, the effects of neoadjuvant immunotherapy on long-term prognosis in LA-HNSCCs require further study

    Efferocytes release extracellular vesicles to resolve inflammation and tissue injury via prosaposin-GPR37 signaling.

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    Macrophages release soluble mediators following efferocytic clearance of apoptotic cells to facilitate intercellular communication and promote the resolution of inflammation. However, whether inflammation resolution is modulated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) and vesicular mediators released by efferocytes is not known. We report that efferocyte-derived EVs express prosaposin, which binds to macrophage GPR37 to increase expression of the efferocytosis receptor Tim4 via an ERK-AP1-dependent signaling axis, leading to increased macrophage efferocytosis efficiency and accelerated resolution of inflammation. Neutralization and knockdown of prosaposin or blocking GRP37 abrogates the pro-resolution effects of efferocyte-derived EVs in vivo. Administration of efferocyte-derived EVs in a murine model of atherosclerosis is associated with an increase in lesional macrophage efferocytosis efficiency and a decrease in plaque necrosis and lesional inflammation. Thus, we establish a critical role for efferocyte-derived vesicular mediators in increasing macrophage efferocytosis efficiency and accelerating the resolution of inflammation and tissue injury

    Zn2+ incorporated composite polysaccharide microspheres for sustained growth factor release and wound healing

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    The development of new wound dressings has always been an issue of great clinical importance and research promise. In this study, we designed a novel double cross-linked polysaccharide hydrogel microspheres based on alginate (ALG) and hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA) from gas-assisted microfluidics for wound healing. The microspheres from gas-assisted microfluidics showed an uniform size and good microsphere morphology. Moreover, this composite polysaccharide hydrogel microspheres were constructed by harnessing the fact that zinc ions (Zn2+) can cross-link with ALG as well as histidine-tagged vascular endothelial growth (His-VEGF) to achieve long-term His-VEGF release, thus promoting angiogenesis and wound healing. Meanwhile, Zn2+, as an important trace element, can exert antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, reshaping the trauma microenvironment. In addition, photo cross-linked HAMA was introduced into the microspheres to further improve its mechanical properties and drug release ability. In summary, this novel Zn2+ composite polysaccharide hydrogel microspheres loaded with His-VEGF based on a dual cross-linked strategy exhibited synergistic antimicrobial and angiogenic effects in promoting wound healing

    Molecular genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa

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    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited disorder of skin fragility, caused by mutations in a large number of genes associated with skin integrity and dermal-epidermal adhesion. Skin fragility is manifested by a decrease in resistance to external mechanical influences, the clinical signs of which are the formation of blisters, erosions and wounds on the skin and mucous membranes. EB is a multisystemic disease and characterized by a wide phenotypic spectrum with extracutaneous complications in severe types, besides the skin and mucous membranes, with high mortality. More than 30 clinical subtypes have been identified, which are grouped into four main types: simplex EB, junctional EB, dystrophic EB and Kindler syndrome. To date, pathogenic variants in 16 different genes are associated with EB and encode proteins that are part of the skin anchoring structures or are signaling proteins. Genetic mutations cause dysfunction of cellular structures, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis of cells, leading to mechanical instability of the skin. The formation of reduced proteins or decrease in their level leads mainly to functional disorders, forming mild or intermediate severe phenotypes. Absent protein expression is a result of null genetic variants and leads to structural abnormalities, causing a severe clinical phenotype. For most of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of EB, certain relationships have been established between the type and position of genetic variant and the severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Establishing an accurate diagnosis depends on the correlation of clinical, genealogical and immunohistological data in combination with molecular genetic testing. In general, the study of clinical, genetic and ultrastructural changes in EB has significantly expanded the understanding of the natural history of the disease and supplemented the data on genotype-phenotype correlations, promotes the search and study of epigenetic and non-genetic disease modifier factors, and also allows developing approaches to radical treatment of the disease. New advances of sequencing technologies have made it possible to describe new phenotypes and study their genetic and molecular mechanisms. This article describes the pathogenetic aspects and genes that cause main and rare syndromic subtypes of EB
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