28,427 research outputs found

    Off-label use of a medium-high molecular weight, isotonic and sterile hyaluronic acid in aesthetic medicine: cases report

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    Improved lifestyle and increased interpersonal relationships have led older people to look for ways to improve their appearance and the aging signs of aging. Objective: I studied a sterile and isotonic medical device based on hyaluronic acid in a variable solution between 1500Kdalton and 1800Kdalton in off label because it is dedicated to the use on mucous membranes at 0.12% concentration on sale since 2015. Methods: Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected voluntary patients, after having obtained regular informed consent. Results: In agreement with previous studies on formulations containing hyaluronic acid with medium and high molecular weight specifically studied for aesthetic medicine, the results obtained in vivo demonstrate the effectiveness of this medium-high molecular weight formulated product injected into the dermis in reducing skin wrinkles and in improving the signs of aging

    Transcriptional Profiles for Glutamate Transporters Reveal Differences Between Organophosphates but Similarities with Unrelated Neurotoxicants

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    The developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates involves mechanisms other than their shared property as cholinesterase inhibitors, among which are excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. We used PC12 cells as a neurodevelopmental model to compare the effects of chlorpyrifos and diazinon on the expression of genes encoding glutamate transporters. Chlorpyrifos had a greater effect in cells undergoing nerve growth factor-induced neurodifferentiation as compared to undifferentiated PC12 cells, with peak sensitivity at the initiation of differentiation, reflecting a global upregulation of all the glutamate transporter genes expressed in this cell line. In differentiating cells, chlorpyrifos had a significantly greater effect than did diazinon and concordance analysis indicated no resemblance in their expression patterns. At the same time, the smaller effects of diazinon were highly concordant with those of an organochlorine pesticide (dieldrin) and a metal (divalent nickel). We also performed similar evaluations for the cystine/glutamate exchanger, which provides protection against oxidative stress by moving cystine into the cell; again, chlorpyrifos had the greatest effect, in this case reducing expression in undifferentiated and differentiating cells. Our results point to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress as major contributors to the noncholinesterase mechanisms that distinguish the neurodevelopmental outcomes between different organophosphates while providing a means whereby apparently unrelated neurotoxicants may produce similar outcomes

    The conditions for functional mechanisms of compensation and reward for environmental services

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    Mechanisms of compensation and reward for environmental services (CRES) are becoming increasingly contemplated as means for managing human–environment interactions. Most of the functional mechanisms in the tropics have been developed within the last 15 years; many developing countries still have had little experience with functional mechanisms. We consider the conditions that foster the origin and implementation of functional mechanisms. Deductive and inductive approaches are combined. Eight hypotheses are derived from theories of institution and policy change. Five case studies, from Latin America, Africa, and Asia, are then reviewed according to a common framework. The results suggest the following to be important conditions for functional CRES mechanisms: (1) localized scarcity for particular environmental services, (2) influence from international environmental agreements and international organizations, (3) government policies and public attitudes favoring a mixture of regulatory and marketbased instruments, and (4) security of individual and group property rights

    Meta-analysis and systematic review of skin graft donor-site dressings with future guidelines.

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    Background: Many types of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor-site dressings are available with little consensus from the literature on the optimal dressing type. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the most recent outcomes regarding moist and nonmoist dressings for STSG donor sites. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted across PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to search for comparative studies evaluating different STSG donor-site dressings in adult subjects published between 2008 and 2017. The quality of randomized controlled trials was assessed using the Jadad scale. Data were collected on donor-site pain, rate of epithelialization, infection rate, cosmetic appearance, and cost. Meta-analysis was performed for reported pain scores. Results: A total of 41 articles were included comparing 44 dressings. Selected studies included analysis of donor-site pain (36 of 41 articles), rate of epithelialization (38 of 41), infection rate (25 of 41), cosmetic appearance (20 of 41), and cost (10 of 41). Meta-analysis revealed moist dressings result in lower pain (pooled effect size = 1.44). A majority of articles (73%) reported better reepithelialization rates with moist dressings. Conclusion: The literature on STSG donor-site dressings has not yet identified an ideal dressing. Although moist dressings provide superior outcomes with regard to pain control and wound healing, there continues to be a lack of standardization. The increasing commercial availability and marketing of novel dressings necessitates the development of standardized research protocols to design better comparison studies and assess true efficacy.R01 EB021308 - NIBIB NIH HHSPublished versio

    Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment - Sufficient protection against mixture effects?

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    © 2013 Martin et al.; licensee BioMed Central LtdThis article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an incentive to generate better data and recommend adopting a pragmatic, but scientifically better founded approach to mixture risk assessment. © 2013 Martin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Oak Foundatio

    Effects of consumption of galactooligosaccharides obtained through whey enzymatically modified on the faecal flora and nutritional parameters of hamsters

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    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of wheyenzymatically modified rich in galactooligosaccharides in thenutritional characteristics and effects in the microflora of cecumcontents by the study with Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetusauratus) for 28 days (controlled conditions). Three isoproteic dietswere prepared (20% w/w): C (casein), W (whey) and G (wheymodified). The groups studied differed positively from the C regardingfeed and protein efficiency ratio. The relationships (w/w) oforgan/body were found proportional in all diets. The counts ofprobiotics from the cecum contents the groups showed no difference.The pHs of studied groups were lower than C, this acidity can atimpairs the ability of pathogens to grow in the intestine. Resultssuggest that using whey enzymatically modified rich ingalactooligosaccharides could replace the standard diet withnutritional efficiency and possible inhibit the microorganismspathogenic without induce damage in health.Fil: Dos Santos Da Fonseca, Renata Aline. Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande; Brasil. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Rosario; ArgentinaFil: Rodrigues Machado, Adriana. Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande; BrasilFil: Muniz Moreira, Lidiane. Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande; BrasilFil: Rodrigues, Rosane S.. Universidade Federal de Pelotas; BrasilFil: Machado, Mirian. Universidade Federal de Pelotas; BrasilFil: Souza Soares, Leonor A.. Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande; BrasilFil: Burkert, Carlos André V.. Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande; BrasilFil: Burkert, Janaína Fernandes de Medeiros. Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande; Brasi

    Chemical Power for Microscopic Robots in Capillaries

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    The power available to microscopic robots (nanorobots) that oxidize bloodstream glucose while aggregated in circumferential rings on capillary walls is evaluated with a numerical model using axial symmetry and time-averaged release of oxygen from passing red blood cells. Robots about one micron in size can produce up to several tens of picowatts, in steady-state, if they fully use oxygen reaching their surface from the blood plasma. Robots with pumps and tanks for onboard oxygen storage could collect oxygen to support burst power demands two to three orders of magnitude larger. We evaluate effects of oxygen depletion and local heating on surrounding tissue. These results give the power constraints when robots rely entirely on ambient available oxygen and identify aspects of the robot design significantly affecting available power. More generally, our numerical model provides an approach to evaluating robot design choices for nanomedicine treatments in and near capillaries.Comment: 28 pages, 7 figure
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