20,729 research outputs found

    Measurement of ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes with electrical impedance tomography

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    Introduction Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been shown to be able to distinguish both ventilation and perfusion. With adequate filtering the regional distributions of both ventilation and perfusion and their relationships could be analysed. Several methods of separation have been suggested previously, including breath holding, electrocardiograph (ECG) gating and frequency filtering. Many of these methods require interventions inappropriate in a clinical setting. This study therefore aims to extend a previously reported frequency filtering technique to a spontaneously breathing cohort and assess the regional distributions of ventilation and perfusion and their relationship. Methods Ten healthy adults were measured during a breath hold and while spontaneously breathing in supine, prone, left and right lateral positions. EIT data were analysed with and without filtering at the respiratory and heart rate. Profiles of ventilation, perfusion and ventilation/perfusion related impedance change were generated and regions of ventilation and pulmonary perfusion were identified and compared. Results Analysis of the filtration technique demonstrated its ability to separate the ventilation and cardiac related impedance signals without negative impact. It was, therefore, deemed suitable for use in this spontaneously breathing cohort. Regional distributions of ventilation, perfusion and the combined ΔZV/ΔZQ were calculated along the gravity axis and anatomically in each position. Along the gravity axis, gravity dependence was seen only in the lateral positions in ventilation distribution, with the dependent lung being better ventilated regardless of position. This gravity dependence was not seen in perfusion. When looking anatomically, differences were only apparent in the lateral positions. The lateral position ventilation distributions showed a difference in the left lung, with the right lung maintaining a similar distribution in both lateral positions. This is likely caused by more pronounced anatomical changes in the left lung when changing positions. Conclusions The modified filtration technique was demonstrated to be effective in separating the ventilation and perfusion signals in spontaneously breathing subjects. Gravity dependence was seen only in ventilation distribution in the left lung in lateral positions, suggesting gravity based shifts in anatomical structures. Gravity dependence was not seen in any perfusion distributions

    Diagnostic value of ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients after lung transplantation

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of function volume/morphological volume ratio calculated from ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in distinguishing the lungs with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) from the lungs without this syndrome after lung transplantation and to assess its relationship with spirometry parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 84 consecutive lung transplant recipients and 13 donors who underwent ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Differences in the function volume/morphological volume ratio of unilateral lungs were tested for significance between the lungs with and without BOS. Receiver operating characteristics and correlations between function volume/morphological volume ratios of bilateral lungs and forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and total lung capacity were analyzed. RESULTS: The function volume/morphological volume ratios of ventilation and perfusion images of unilateral lungs were significantly lower in lungs with BOS (each P CONCLUSION: The function volume/morphological volume ratio enables a semiquantitative assessment of ventilation and perfusion lung functions and is useful for diagnosing BOS after lung transplantation

    The Role of rescue therapies in the treatment of severe ARDS

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    ARDS is characterized by a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema with bilateral chest radiograph opacities and hypoxemia refractory to oxygen therapy. It is a common cause of admission to the ICU due to hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Corticosteroids are not recommended in ARDS patients. Rescue therapies alleviate hypoxemia in patients unable to maintain reasonable oxygenation: recruitment maneuvers, prone positioning, inhaled nitric oxide, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improve oxygenation, but their impact on mortality remains unproven. Restrictive fluid management seems to be a favorable strategy with no significant reduction in 60-d mortality. Future studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of these therapies on outcomes in patients with severe ARDS, and institution of these therapies may be considered on a case-by-case basis

    Transpulmonary thermodilution: its role in assessment of lung water and pulmonary edema

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    Tissue edema, in particular pulmonary edema, increasingly is recognized as a perioperative complication affecting outcome. Management strategies directed at avoiding excessive fluid administration, reducing inflammatory response, and decreasing capillary permeability commonly are advocated in perioperative care protocols. In this review, transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) as a bedside tool to quantitatively monitor lung water accumulation and optimize fluid therapy is examined. Furthermore, the roles of TPTD as an early detector of fluid accumulation before the development of overt pulmonary edema and in risk stratification are explored. In addition, the ability of TPTD to provide insight into the etiology of pulmonary edema, specifically differentiating hydrostatic versus increased pulmonary capillary permeability, is emerging as an aid in therapeutic decision-making. The combination of hemodynamic and lung water data afforded by TPTD offers unique benefits for the care of high-risk perioperative patients

    Modeling-based determination of physiological parameters of systemic VOCs by breath gas analysis: a pilot study

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    In this paper we develop a simple two compartment model which extends the Farhi equation to the case when the inhaled concentration of a volatile organic compound (VOC) is not zero. The model connects the exhaled breath concentration of systemic VOCs with physiological parameters such as endogenous production rates and metabolic rates. Its validity is tested with data obtained for isoprene and inhaled deuterated isoprene-D5.Comment: 16 page

    A mathematical model for breath gas analysis of volatile organic compounds with special emphasis on acetone

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    Recommended standardized procedures for determining exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide and nasal nitric oxide have been developed by task forces of the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society. These recommendations have paved the way for the measurement of nitric oxide to become a diagnostic tool for specific clinical applications. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of other trace gases in exhaled breath, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which reflect ongoing metabolism. The concentrations of water-soluble, blood-borne substances in exhaled breath are influenced by: (i) breathing patterns affecting gas exchange in the conducting airways; (ii) the concentrations in the tracheo-bronchial lining fluid; (iii) the alveolar and systemic concentrations of the compound. The classical Farhi equation takes only the alveolar concentrations into account. Real-time measurements of acetone in end-tidal breath under an ergometer challenge show characteristics which cannot be explained within the Farhi setting. Here we develop a compartment model that reliably captures these profiles and is capable of relating breath to the systemic concentrations of acetone. By comparison with experimental data it is inferred that the major part of variability in breath acetone concentrations (e.g., in response to moderate exercise or altered breathing patterns) can be attributed to airway gas exchange, with minimal changes of the underlying blood and tissue concentrations. Moreover, it is deduced that measured end-tidal breath concentrations of acetone determined during resting conditions and free breathing will be rather poor indicators for endogenous levels. Particularly, the current formulation includes the classical Farhi and the Scheid series inhomogeneity model as special limiting cases.Comment: 38 page

    MRI of the lung (3/3)-current applications and future perspectives

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    BACKGROUND: MRI of the lung is recommended in a number of clinical indications. Having a non-radiation alternative is particularly attractive in children and young subjects, or pregnant women. METHODS: Provided there is sufficient expertise, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be considered as the preferential modality in specific clinical conditions such as cystic fibrosis and acute pulmonary embolism, since additional functional information on respiratory mechanics and regional lung perfusion is provided. In other cases, such as tumours and pneumonia in children, lung MRI may be considered an alternative or adjunct to other modalities with at least similar diagnostic value. RESULTS: In interstitial lung disease, the clinical utility of MRI remains to be proven, but it could provide additional information that will be beneficial in research, or at some stage in clinical practice. Customised protocols for chest imaging combine fast breath-hold acquisitions from a "buffet" of sequences. Having introduced details of imaging protocols in previous articles, the aim of this manuscript is to discuss the advantages and limitations of lung MRI in current clinical practice. CONCLUSION: New developments and future perspectives such as motion-compensated imaging with self-navigated sequences or fast Fourier decomposition MRI for non-contrast enhanced ventilation- and perfusion-weighted imaging of the lung are discussed. Main Messages • MRI evolves as a third lung imaging modality, combining morphological and functional information. • It may be considered first choice in cystic fibrosis and pulmonary embolism of young and pregnant patients. • In other cases (tumours, pneumonia in children), it is an alternative or adjunct to X-ray and CT. • In interstitial lung disease, it serves for research, but the clinical value remains to be proven. • New users are advised to make themselves familiar with the particular advantages and limitations
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