168,960 research outputs found

    The effects of using visuals to support vocabulary development in urban students

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    The purpose of this action research study was to use visuals to support vocabulary development in urban students. Since visual support is an affective technique for English language learners, the study was designed to see if this same theory applies to urban students. The participants were a group of eight urban kindergarteners in a large urban school. The intervention took place over an eight-week period. During the first four weeks, students received regular instruction with limited visual support, provided by the reading series. In the next four weeks, students were taught vocabulary words using extra visual support related to the selected vocabulary. The visuals included photographs, still pictures, video clips, realia, other items deemed as appropriate. The results showed students acquired vocabulary words when learning was supported by realistic visual support

    A Year Is not Long Enough for Learning

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    This qualitative study asked: “What happens when urban students are taught reading comprehension strategies?” Data comprised artifacts, field notes, and interviews. Analysis consisted of examining data for themes. Findings included the reality that the “Matthew Effect” (Stanovich, 1986)—where the rich in knowledge, vocabulary, and texts-read grow richer as new texts add knowledge, vocabulary, and textual experience while the poor grow poorer in that their limited knowledge, vocabulary, and textual experience lead to little gain—lives on. A year is not long enough for learning for such students; even the comprehension strategies advocated by the National Reading Panel (2000) do not help. Further research should examine the circumstances under which urban students build background knowledge, develop vocabulary, and become proficient in reading

    Scaling in Words on Twitter

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    Scaling properties of language are a useful tool for understanding generative processes in texts. We investigate the scaling relations in citywise Twitter corpora coming from the Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States. We observe a slightly superlinear urban scaling with the city population for the total volume of the tweets and words created in a city. We then find that a certain core vocabulary follows the scaling relationship of that of the bulk text, but most words are sensitive to city size, exhibiting a super- or a sublinear urban scaling. For both regimes we can offer a plausible explanation based on the meaning of the words. We also show that the parameters for Zipf's law and Heaps law differ on Twitter from that of other texts, and that the exponent of Zipf's law changes with city size

    How Can Teachers Enhance The Acquisition And Retention Of Vocabulary In Their Urban Learner?

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    The purpose of this research was to identify high impact vocabulary strategies for urban learners and create professional development for the staff at my elementary school. I determined what would be high-impact by looking at my students three different ways. First, I examined students who are English language learners, second, students who live in poverty, and third, standard English learners. Next, I read research about the best practices for teaching vocabulary in all three categories. Finally, I looked for similarities, ultimately identifying and synthesizing what works best for all three types of students, keeping in mind that the urban classrooms also have students that do not fit into the three previously identified categories, as well. In the end, I determined that culturally responsive teaching is best practice in an urban classroom. I created a Google slideshow highlighting three high impact vocabulary strategies, that teachers can immediately use in their classroom

    The Effects of Marzano\u27s Six Step Vocabulary Process, on Fourth Grade Students\u27 Vocabulary Knowledge, Fluency, and Sentence Complexity

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    This exploratory study examined the ways in which fourth grade students, in an urban setting, responded to a nine-week implementation of Marzano\u27s Six Step Vocabulary Process. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the direct instruction of vocabulary and the effects on student achievement as measured by Vocabulary Words Assessments, Rigby Reading A-Z Fluency Assessments, and Sentence Complexity Assessments

    Explicit vocabulary instruction for fifth graders’ vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: An action research study

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    This action research aimed to evaluate the impact that explicit vocabulary instruction delivered through Schoology had on the vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension of fifth graders at an urban elementary school in the southeastern United States. A convergent mixed-method approach was applied. The vocabulary and reading comprehension scores and the learner experience survey accounted for the quantitative data. Furthermore, qualitative data gathered from semi-structured interviews were analyzed inductively. Findings show that students\u27 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension significantly increased after receiving explicit vocabulary instruction, and results marked instruction regarding Latin and Greek roots as areas needing attention. For elementary educators, the study\u27s practical implications highlight the importance of teaching explicit vocabulary strategies, including morphology and context clues, to students

    Word Generation in Boston Public Schools: Natural History of a Literacy Intervention

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    Describes a program to teach high-frequency academic vocabulary and discourses skills, promote effective teaching strategies for vocabulary, comprehension, and discussion, and facilitate faculty collaboration; its implementation; and evaluation results

    The Effects of Elaborative Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary, Written Explanations, and Knowledge Structures of Sixth-Grade Students With and Without Disabilities

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    Writing is a complex process that presents challenges for middle school teachers and their students with and without disabilities. A particular area of difficulty is the application of content-area vocabulary in the explanatory writing of sixth-grade students. This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effectiveness of an elaborative vocabulary strategy instruction on the vocabulary scores, concept map scores, explanatory writing, and self-efficacy and attitudes towards writing of 104 sixth-grade students with and without disabilities enrolled in an urban charter public middle school. The study was conducted over a four-week period. The results showed that the elaborative vocabulary instruction had statistically significant effects on the concept map scores favoring the experimental group, but generally showed no significant differences in vocabulary, explanatory writing, and self-efficacy and attitudes. The findings of this study support the need for continued investigations in quality vocabulary instruction that impact writing, specifically, teacher training and support in the area of vocabulary strategy instruction to impact explanatory writing outcomes

    The Cost of Housing Instability: The Effect on a Child's Literacy Skills

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    The present study assesses the consequences of housing instability on childhood literacy skills. Housing instability encompasses a variety of housing related issues, such as crowding, frequent moves, housing status, and an inability to pay rent. Housing instability has been associated with childhood outcomes and can negatively affect a child's education and health. Using data from wave 5 of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being study, this study examines the relationship between housing instability and literacy skills in 9-year-old participants. This study has three dependent variables that capture literacy skills: (1) standard scoring on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, (2) primary teacher assessment of spelling, and (3) primary teacher assessment of reading. The independent variable of this study is housing status operationalized as free, rental, or owned housing. Pearson's Chi Squared tests, T-tests, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Post-hoc Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test, and an OLS Regression model were conducted to assess the relationship between housing instability and childhood literacy skills. The findings of this study show that there is a significant relationship between housing instability and literacy skills. Children residing in rental housing reported significantly lower reading, spelling, and vocabulary skills. Children of homeowners displayed overall higher literacy skills compared to children of renters and children residing in free housing.No embargoAcademic Major: Social Wor
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