409,726 research outputs found

    Governance and Creativity on Urban Regeneration Processes

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    Governance has become a central topic among policymakers. There is an international consensus that policymaking is evolving from a traditional top-down government approach towards a system of governing that focuses on engaging the citizens within an area (Cabus, 2003). New forms of governance targeting urban competitiveness are increasingly oriented to vertical (between lower and high levels of government and cooperation forms between entities and firms along the production chain) and horizontal (between firms or different municipalities or public and private entities) cooperation (OEDC, 2005). Based on a study research methodology, this article seeks to contribute to answer to the following research questions: i) what is the role of governance in the processes of urban regeneration?; ii) what is the role of governance in the development of creative processes for urban regeneration? and iii) what is the potential of governance to support urban regeneration strategies based on creativity and creative industries?Territorial governance, Creativity, Urban regeneration.

    What makes urban governance co-productive? Contradictions in the current debate on co-production

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    Following a number of prominent concepts in urban planning, like participatory planning or self-help housing, co-production has started to gain momentum in the global South context. While it is has been long discussed as a means of service provision, the term is more and more often used in the broader sense of urban governance and policy planning. This understanding goes beyond the aspect of scaling-up successful co-productive infrastructure focused projects; rather, it indicates a different format of engagement for prompting urban stakeholders into planning citywide urban solutions. This article discusses the distinction between the different levels of co-production and their inter-linkages, and it investigates the relevance of positioning co-production as a factor framing urban governance. This includes a discussion on three main contradictions that can be identified within the current discussion on co-production. Finally, it identifies a set of arguments for elaborating the role of co-production in a policy and urban governance setting

    The Tangled Web of Associational Life

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    This paper examines how decentralization and informalization are reshaping urban governance in contemporary Africa. By exploring the interface between urban institutional failures and popular organizational solutions, the paper considers how informal goveinformal economy, urban governance, Nigeria, enterprise clusters, civil society

    The good governance agenda and urban governance : the case of Dhaka, Bangladesh : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Arts) in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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    This thesis argues that the good governance agenda has reached an impasse in Dhaka due to the absence of political will and commitment. The current status of the good governance agenda, its advocates and opponents, after ten years of advancement as a prerequisite for poverty alleviation is investigated as well as its connection to the more recent phenomenon of urban governance. Urban governance on the one hand is used to describe urban actors and their relationships and on the other to describe the management of urban centres. Using Dhaka, Bangladesh as a case study, the thesis highlights that the two descriptions are very much connected since actors and their relationships, in the context of Bengali culture and accepted behavioural norms, influence the outcome of urban management issues, such as the provision of basic services and infrastructure. While there is little evidence that good governance does in fact lead to poverty alleviation, multilateral and bilateral donors and numerous NGOs, encouraged by the amount of funding available, are pursuing strategies to improve the governance situation in Dhaka. However, the current state of governance and the entrenched norms greatly affect the outcome which is emphasised through an examination of a number of current projects and programmes. Development practitioners, especially donors, are only now beginning to acknowledge the importance and influence of culture and politics on development policy, programme and project outcomes. However, direct attempts to modify culture and politics will undoubtedly lead to criticisms of interference in sovereignty issues. It is suggested that the good governance agenda has reached an impasse until there is a demonstration of political will and commitment for achieving good governance from the Government of Bangladesh, civil society and donors. The Government because as elected representatives they have power to change legislation, provide leadership nationwide and set a context for improvements; civil society because their attitudes and actions can either reinforce the current societal norms or challenge them; and donors because their own political and strategic agendas should help and not hinder development

    School District Governance Reform: The Devil Is in the Details

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    Provides an overview of alternative approaches to governance in urban school districts, including integrated governance, district dissolution, and state receivership. Outlines the benefits, limitations, and implications of mayoral control over districts

    Governance and City Regeneration – A New Methodological Approach for Design and Evaluation

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    Governance has become a central topic among policymakers. There is an international consensus that policymaking is evolving from a traditional top-down government approach towards a system of governing that focuses on engaging the citizens within an area (Cabus, 2003). New forms of governance targeting urban competitiveness are increasingly oriented to vertical (between lower and high levels of government and cooperation forms between entities and firms along the production chain) and horizontal (between firms or different municipalities or public and private entities) cooperation (OEDC, 2005). Urban renewal policies underwent significant changes in recent decades. Synthetically, the following periods can be distinguished: 1970s: ñ€Ɠhardñ€ urban renewal – extensive physical interventions; 1980s: ñ€Ɠsoftñ€ urban renewal - efforts to keep the original population in place; 1990s: ñ€Ɠintegrated urban renewalñ€ - combining physical, economic and social interventions (Tosics, 2010). And over the last few years there has been a gradual shift in the understanding of what should be the tools and objectives of urban regeneration policies, with a greater emphasis on process-related and ‘soft’ issues of stakeholder engagement, partnership formation, leadership development, ‘institutional capacity’ development, knowledge and learning (Magalhães, 2004). This shift in the understanding of urban regeneration processes accomplishes the growing importance in literature of concepts like urban governance, institutional relational density, creativity, social capital, city branding and place marketing. The main purpose of this paper is to propose a new methodology for territorial analysis and planning focused on urban regeneration processes and its governance mechanisms. A new methodology that seeks, for each specific urban context, contribute to the following results: 1) Help select the most appropriate governance model to be adopted for each process of urban regeneration, 2) Monitor the partnership process and help promote the partnership guidance; 3) Support the design process and the definition of the strategic approach and projects, 4) Monitor the process of implementing the strategy and support multidimensional and multiscale evaluation of its results; 5) Evaluate the socio-economic and territorial impacts of urban regeneration processes.

    Strengthening the role of civil society in water sector governance towards climate change adaptation in African cities – Durban, Maputo, Nairobi

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    Water resources management is one of the most important climate change-related issues on international, national and urban public policy agendas. Income inequality in South Africa, Mozambique, and Kenya is among the largest in the world; in all three countries, equity struggles related to water are growing in social, political and ecological significance, which is both a symptom and a cause of urban vulnerabilities related to climate change. Democratic mediation of these conflicts, and sustainable long-term management of water resources in the face of climate change, requires public participation. But those most affected by water issues such as scarcity and flooding are also those least likely to be able to participate in governance and policy institutions. In particular, members of economically disadvantaged groups – especially women, in general – tend to be gravely impacted by poor water management, but also face great difficulties in participating effectively in governance bodies. This project responded to that particular need, and has developed practical strategies for strengthening urban governments in planning investments in climate change adaptation. The project linked university researchers with community-based NGOs conducting environmental education and organizing participatory workshops in low-income urban areas with pressing climate change and water-related problems; built on proven methods of community-university collaboration to strengthen urban watershed governance; increased equity in public participation processes related to urban climate change adaptation; and fostered progressive local, national and international policy development on climate change-related water management – while training students, university researchers, NGO staff members, and community participants. The major research outcome of the project is its contribution to understanding effective ways of strengthening local governments, NGOs and civil society organizations involved in environmental education and organizing for improved public participation in watershed governance and climate change adaptation in African urban areas.This research was supported by the International Development Research Centre, grant number IDRC GRANT NO. 106002-00

    Participatory democracy and urban governance in France: Are they still utopian views?

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    This paper aims at questionning the relevance of the current use of the notion of governance in urban economics. As a starting point, the lack of an appropriate background ( due to the kind of participating actors, the way they are organized and deal with common problems), will be supposed to shackle practical experiences which are in relation to urban governance. Consequently, these experiences could not be easily spreaded, contrary to the main theoerical belief. Our empirical field will concern the current government of French cities during the last two decades. Thus, contrary to the prevailing trend of the literature, the reasons why urban governement of French cities would not entail an increasing level of urban governance and participative democracy will be developed. In order to test our main assumption, terminological borrowed words in relation to governance, municipal and metropolitan institutionnal constraints, and finally weaknesses of citizens associations will be successively taken into account.

    Urban Local Governance in the Crucible: empirical overtones of central government meddling in local urban councils affairs in Zimbabwe

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    This article explores the criticalness of decentralized governance as a solution towards service delivery challenges experienced by urban centres. But, in Zimbabwe centre-local relations are a phenomenological reflection of a tendency towards (re)centralization than decentralization. This is clearly visible in the widespread political interference by central government’s Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing in the administrative affairs of urban councils. The results from a survey of a sample of fifty-two respondents on the Zimbabwean urban governance status revealed that issues of political interference revolved around the firing of legitimate councils and mayors, control of all council reforms including generation of funds, politicking in the chambers, unlawful appointments, and the use of commissions. Constitutional amendment has been cited as a big step towards political interference in urban governance of the country.decentralisation, citizenship, sustainable development, urban politics, constitution, financial management, interference

    Urban Governance and Finance in India

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    Over 330 million people live in Indias cities; 35 cities have a population of over a million and three (Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata) of the 10 largest metropolises in the world are in India. Indias cities are large, economically important, and growing. However, neither urban infrastructure nor the level of urban public services is adequate for current needs, let alone to meet growing demands. Dealing with this problem is a formidable challenge. Not only must adequate finance for the provision of services be found but it is critical to ensure that the money spent results in desired outputs and outcomes. To do so, local governance structures also need to be reformed and strengthened. This paper attempts to point the way towards some possible solutions by analysing urban governance and finance in India in the context of lessons drawn from fiscal federalism theory and experiences of governance institutions and financing systems both in India and around the world. No one system of urban governance is likely to work equally well for all urban local bodies. However, the paper identifies some key reforms required to realise both the constitutional intent to encourage citizen participation in urban governance and the economic and politically desirable goal of ensuring greater accountability of urban governments. For example, the paper draws attention to existing ambiguities in the assignment system and underlines the need to undertake activity mapping to ensure clarity as well as to make independent agencies significantly accountable to elected governments in urban areas. The paper also discusses a variety of ways of augmenting the resources of the municipal bodies in the country including essential reforms in the property tax system and adequate exploitation of user charges and fees for various services delivered as well as ways of strengthening and improving Central and State transfers to urban local governments. With respect to financing urban infrastructure, development charges should be used more effectively. More should also be done to utilise public lands more effectively. In addition, to a considerable extent capital expenditure requirements will have to be financed through borrowing so further development of the municipal bond market is important, as is more and more effective use of public private partnerships in some areas.India, urban public finance, urban governance, intergovernmental fiscal relations, property tax, Metropolitan areas, infrastructure finance
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