22,817 research outputs found

    Grasping nothing: a study of minimal ontologies and the sense of music

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    If music were to have a proper sense – one in which it is truly given – one might reasonably place this in sound and aurality. I contend, however, that no such sense exists; rather, the sense of music takes place, and it does so with the impossible. To this end, this thesis – which is a work of philosophy and music – advances an ontology of the impossible (i.e., it thinks the being of what, properly speaking, can have no being) and considers its implications for music, articulating how ontological aporias – of the event, of thinking the absolute, and of sovereignty’s dismemberment – imply senses of music that are anterior to sound. John Cage’s Silent Prayer, a nonwork he never composed, compels a rerethinking of silence on the basis of its contradictory status of existence; Florian Hecker et al.’s Speculative Solution offers a basis for thinking absolute music anew to the precise extent that it is a discourse of meaninglessness; and Manfred Werder’s [yearn] pieces exhibit exemplarily that music’s sense depends on the possibility of its counterfeiting. Inso-much as these accounts produce musical senses that take the place of sound, they are also understood to be performances of these pieces. Here, then, thought is music’s organon and its instrument

    Multipartite entanglement and quantum error identification in DD-dimensional cluster states

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    An entangled state is said to be mm-uniform if the reduced density matrix of any mm qubits is maximally mixed. This formal definition is known to be intimately linked to pure quantum error correction codes (QECCs), which allow not only to correct errors, but also to identify their precise nature and location. Here, we show how to create mm-uniform states using local gates or interactions and elucidate several QECC applications. We first point out that DD-dimensional cluster states, i.e. the ground states of frustration-free local cluster Hamiltonians, are mm-uniform with m=2Dm=2D. We discuss finite size limitations of mm-uniformity and how to achieve larger mm values using quasi-DD dimensional cluster states. We demonstrate experimentally on a superconducting quantum computer that the 1D cluster state allows to detect and identify 1-qubit errors, distinguishing, XX, YY and ZZ errors. Finally, we show that mm-uniformity allows to formulate pure QECCs with a finite logical space

    Central-provincial Politics and Industrial Policy-making in the Electric Power Sector in China

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    In addition to the studies that provide meaningful insights into the complexity of technical and economic issues, increasing studies have focused on the political process of market transition in network industries such as the electric power sector. This dissertation studies the central–provincial interactions in industrial policy-making and implementation, and attempts to evaluate the roles of Chinese provinces in the market reform process of the electric power sector. Market reforms of this sector are used as an illustrative case because the new round of market reforms had achieved some significant breakthroughs in areas such as pricing reform and wholesale market trading. Other policy measures, such as the liberalization of the distribution market and cross-regional market-building, are still at a nascent stage and have only scored moderate progress. It is important to investigate why some policy areas make greater progress in market reforms than others. It is also interesting to examine the impacts of Chinese central-provincial politics on producing the different market reform outcomes. Guangdong and Xinjiang are two provinces being analyzed in this dissertation. The progress of market reforms in these two provinces showed similarities although the provinces are very different in terms of local conditions such as the stages of their economic development and energy structures. The actual reform can be understood as the outcomes of certain modes of interactions between the central and provincial actors in the context of their particular capabilities and preferences in different policy areas. This dissertation argues that market reform is more successful in policy areas where the central and provincial authorities are able to engage mainly in integrative negotiations than in areas where they engage mainly in distributive negotiations

    Neuroanatomical and gene expression features of the rabbit accessory olfactory system. Implications of pheromone communication in reproductive behaviour and animal physiology

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    Mainly driven by the vomeronasal system (VNS), pheromone communication is involved in many species-specific fundamental innate socio-sexual behaviors such as mating and fighting, which are essential for animal reproduction and survival. Rabbits are a unique model for studying chemocommunication due to the discovery of the rabbit mammary pheromone, but paradoxically there has been a lack of knowledge regarding its VNS pathway. In this work, we aim at filling this gap by approaching the system from an integrative point of view, providing extensive anatomical and genomic data of the rabbit VNS, as well as pheromone-mediated reproductive and behavioural studies. Our results build strong foundation for further translational studies which aim at implementing the use of pheromones to improve animal production and welfare

    Entanglement Islands from Hilbert Space Reduction

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    In this paper we try to understand the \textit{Island formula} from a purely quantum information perspective. We propose that the island phase is a property of the quantum state and the Hilbert space where the state is embedded in. More explicitly we show that, in a quantum system when the state of a subset is totally encoded in the state of another subset, the Hilbert space of the system will reduce, and the way we compute the reduced density matrix and related entropy quantities will also change essentially. Such reductions of the Hilbert space result in a new island formula in quantum systems, which we conjecture to be the same island formula in gravity recently proposed to rescue the unitarity in the process of black hole evaporation. In this context, we give a simple resolution to the Mathur/AMPS paradox. Furthermore, we propose a non-gravitational field theory configuration where entanglement islands emerge, give a description for the entanglement structure of the island phase and propose how to realize the island phase in the lab.Comment: 28pages. Comments are very welcome; V2 references updated, minor revision; V3, footnote 5 adde

    Floquet codes and phases in twist-defect networks

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    We introduce a class of models, dubbed paired twist-defect networks, that generalize the structure of Kitaev's honeycomb model for which there is a direct equivalence between: i) Floquet codes (FCs), ii) adiabatic loops of gapped Hamiltonians, and iii) unitary loops or Floquet-enriched topological orders (FETs) many-body localized phases. This formalism allows one to apply well-characterized topological index theorems for FETs to understand the dynamics of FCs, and to rapidly assess the code properties of many FC models. As an application, we show that the Honeycomb Floquet code of Haah and Hastings is governed by an irrational value of the chiral Floquet index, which implies a topological obstruction to forming a simple, logical boundary with the same periodicity as the bulk measurement schedule. In addition, we construct generalizations of the Honeycomb Floquet code exhibiting arbitrary anyon-automorphism dynamics for general types of Abelian topological order.Comment: 17+5 pages, 10 figure

    A Study of Neural Collapse Phenomenon: Grassmannian Frame, Symmetry, Generalization

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    In this paper, we extends original Neural Collapse Phenomenon by proving Generalized Neural Collapse hypothesis. We obtain Grassmannian Frame structure from the optimization and generalization of classification. This structure maximally separates features of every two classes on a sphere and does not require a larger feature dimension than the number of classes. Out of curiosity about the symmetry of Grassmannian Frame, we conduct experiments to explore if models with different Grassmannian Frames have different performance. As a result, we discover the Symmetric Generalization phenomenon. We provide a theorem to explain Symmetric Generalization of permutation. However, the question of why different directions of features can lead to such different generalization is still open for future investigation.Comment: 25 pages, 2 figure

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‘non-health’ government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario’s Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario’s Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‘non-health’ ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions – namely, Québec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‘due diligence’, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‘lessons learned’ from case articles specific to Québec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‘policy elites’ and ‘political culture’), implementation (‘jurisdiction’), and sustained implementation (‘institutional power’). This work provides important insights into ‘real life’ policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level
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