81,146 research outputs found

    Salmonella Typhimurium resides largely as an extracellular pathogen in porcine tonsils, independently of biofilm-associated genes csgA, csgD and adrA

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    In European countries, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) is the serovar most frequently isolated from slaughter pigs1. Porcine carcass contamination with Salmonella Typhimurium can largely be attributed to persistently infected pigs. Even though tonsils are a predilection site for Salmonella persistence in pigs, virulence mechanisms necessary for cell invasion and intracellular survival do not contribute to tonsillar colonization2, suggesting that Salmonella Typhimurium resides mainly extracellularly in porcine tonsils. Biofilm formation is a mechanism used by several bacteria to survive in an extracellular context or in hostile environments3. The role of biofilm formation in Salmonella Typhimurium persistence in pigs is still unknown. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether Salmonella Typhimurium persists intracellularly or extracellularly in tonsils of pigs. Additionally, the role of biofilm formation in persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium in porcine tonsils was determined

    Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits human prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis in mouse models.

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    Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in prostate cancer patients and often is lethal. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is often used for bone metastasis with limited efficacy. More effective models and treatment methods are required to improve the outcome of prostate cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R were analyzed in vitro and in vivo on prostate cancer cells and experimental bone metastasis. Both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells expressing red fluorescent protien in vitro. To investigate the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R on prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis, we established models of both early and advanced stage bone metastasis. The mice were treated with ZOL, S. typhimurium A1-R, and combination therapy of both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R. ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of solitary bone metastases. S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly decreased bone metastasis and delayed the appearance of PC-3 bone metastases of multiple mouse models. Additionally, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly improved the overall survival of the mice with multiple bone metastases. The results of the present study indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit prostate cancer bone metastasis and has potential for future clinical use in the adjuvant setting

    Very long O-antigen chains enhance fitness during Salmonella-induced colitis by increasing bile resistance.

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    Intestinal inflammation changes the luminal habitat for microbes through mechanisms that have not been fully resolved. We noticed that the FepE regulator of very long O-antigen chain assembly in the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) conferred a luminal fitness advantage in the mouse colitis model. However, a fepE mutant was not defective for survival in tissue, resistance to complement or resistance to polymyxin B. We performed metabolite profiling to identify changes in the luminal habitat that accompany S. Typhimurium-induced colitis. This analysis suggested that S. Typhimurium-induced colitis increased the luminal concentrations of total bile acids. A mutation in fepE significantly reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. Typhimurium for bile acids in vitro. Oral administration of the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine resin lowered the concentrations of total bile acids in colon contents during S. Typhimurium infection and significantly reduced the luminal fitness advantage conferred by the fepE gene in the mouse colitis model. Collectively, these data suggested that very long O-antigen chains function in bile acid resistance of S. Typhimurium, a property conferring a fitness advantage during luminal growth in the inflamed intestine

    Therapeutic efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on human colorectal cancer liver metastasis in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

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    Liver metastasis is the most frequent cause of death from colon and other cancers. Generally, liver metastasis is recalcitrant to treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on liver metastasis in orthotopic mouse models. HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used in the present study. S. typhimurium A1-R infected HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner, inhibiting cancer-cell proliferation in vitro. S. typhimurium A1-R promoted tumor necrosis and inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model of HT-29-RFP. In orthotopic mouse models, S. typhimurium A1-R targeted liver metastases and significantly reduced their growth. The results of this study demonstrate the future clinical potential of S. typhimurium A1-R targeting of liver metastasis

    Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R combined with temozolomide regresses malignant melanoma with a BRAF-V600E mutation in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model.

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    Melanoma is a recalcitrant disease in need of transformative therapuetics. The present study used a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model of melanoma with a BRAF-V600E mutation to determine the efficacy of temozolomide (TEM) combined with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R. A melanoma obtained from the right chest wall of a patient was grown orthotopically in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Two weeks after implantation, 40 PDOX nude mice were divided into 4 groups: G1, control without treatment (n = 10); G2, TEM (25 mg/kg, administrated orally daily for 14 consecutive days, n = 10); G3, S. typhimurium A1-R (5 √ó 107 CFU/100 őľl, i.v., once a week for 2 weeks, n = 10); G4, TEM combined with S. typhimurium A1-R (25 mg/kg, administrated orally daily for 14 consecutive days and 5 √ó 107 CFU/100 őľl, i.v., once a week for 2 weeks, respectively, n = 10). Tumor sizes were measured with calipers twice a week. On day 14 from initiation of treatment, all treatments significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to untreated control (TEM: p < 0.0001; S. typhimurium A1-R: p < 0.0001; TEM combined with S. typhimurium A1-R: p < 0.0001). TEM combined with S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more effective than either S. typhimurium A1-R (p = 0.0004) alone or TEM alone (p = 0.0017). TEM combined with S. typhimurium A1-R could regress the melanoma in the PDOX model and has important future clinical potential for melanoma patients

    Tumor-Targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in Combination with Trastuzumab Eradicates HER-2-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells in Patient-Derived Mouse Models.

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    We have previously developed mouse models of HER-2-positive cervical cancer. Tumors in nude mice had histological structures similar to the original tumor and were stained by anti-HER-2 antibody in the same pattern as the patient's cancer. We have also previously developed tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and have demonstrated its efficacy against patient-derived tumor mouse models, both alone and in combination. In the current study, we determined the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in combination with trastuzumab on a patient-cancer nude-mouse model of HER-2 positive cervical cancer. Mice were randomized to 5 groups and treated as follows: (1) no treatment; (2) carboplatinum (30 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks); (3) trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks); (4) S. typhimurium A1-R (5 √ó 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks); (5) S. typhimurium A1-R (5 √ó 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks) + trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks). All regimens had significant efficacy compared to the untreated mice. The relative tumor volume of S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab-treated mice was smaller compared to trastuzumab alone (p = 0.007) and S. typhimurium A1-R alone (p = 0.039). No significant body weight loss was found compared to the no treatment group except for carboplatinum-treated mice (p = 0.021). Upon histological examination, viable tumor cells were not detected, and replaced by stromal cells in the tumors treated with S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab. The results of the present study suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R and trastuzumab in combination are highly effective against HER-2-expressing cervical cancer

    Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R regresses an osteosarcoma in a patient-derived xenograft model resistant to a molecular-targeting drug.

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    Osteosarcoma occurs mostly in children and young adults, who are treated with multiple agents in combination with limb-salvage surgery. However, the overall 5-year survival rate for patients with recurrent or metastatic osteosarcoma is 20-30% which has not improved significantly over 30 years. Refractory patients would benefit from precise individualized therapy. We report here that a patient-derived osteosarcoma growing in a subcutaneous nude-mouse model was regressed by tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R, p<0.001 compared to untreated control). The osteosarcoma was only partially sensitive to the molecular-targeting drug sorafenib, which did not arrest its growth. S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more effective than sorafenib (P <0.001). S. typhimurium grew in the treated tumors and caused extensive necrosis of the tumor tissue. These data show that S. typhimurium A1-R is powerful therapy for an osteosarcoma patient-derived xenograft model
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