148,545 research outputs found

    NATURE OF LYMPHOCYTE-TUMOR INTERACTION : A GENERAL METHOD FOR CELLULAR IMMUNOABSORPTION

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    The binding of sensitized lymphocytes to tumor cells that leads to tumor cell lysis in vitro has been investigated using poly-L-lysine-fixed tumor cell monolayers and lymphocytes obtained from the anatomical site of tumor allograft rejection. The results show that magnesium is an important prerequisite for this interaction and that the extent of lymphocyte-tumor cell binding depends upon temperature as well as pH. Binding can occur in the absence of serum, although serum factors are necessary for the completion of the cytolytic process. The poly-L-lysine technique is applicable to the formation of confluent monolayers with virtually any normal or neoplastic cell type, including those that are otherwise nonadherent to surfaces. Cells immobilized by this technique can be used for the specific immunoabsorption and subsequent recovery of effector lymphocytes sensitized against transplantation or tumor cell antigens

    Requirement of endogenous tumor necrosis factor/cachectin for recovery from experimental peritonitis

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    By intrasplenic immunization we raised a rat mAb (mAb V1q; IgG2a, kappa) with a potent neutralizing activity against natural mouse TNF (1 microgram/ml mAb V1q/100 U/ml TNF). mAb V1q was used to study the role of endogenous TNF in experimental peritonitis induced by sublethal cecal ligation and puncture. mAb V1q persisted for over 5 days in the serum of mice injected with 100 micrograms of the antibody and, therefore, proved useful for in vivo experiments. As little as 20 micrograms mAb V1q/mouse prevented lethal shock of the animals by 400 micrograms LPS/mouse. In sublethal cecal ligation and puncture i.p. injection of mAb V1q directly and up to 8 h after induction of experimental peritonitis lead to death of the animals within 1 to 3 days. The lethal effect of mAb V1q was compensated by injection of recombinant mouse TNF. Similar mAb V1q effects as in immunocompetent mice were shown in severe combined immune deficiency mice deficient of mature functional B and T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that during the early phase of peritonitis endogenous TNF may stimulate nonlymphoid cells such as granulocytes, macrophages, platelets, and fibroblasts to ingest bacteria and to localize inflammation, respectively. These beneficial effects of TNF may determine survival. Thus, our data may have implications for the therapeutic management of a beginning peritonitis

    Continuous infusion of an agonist of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 in the spinal cord improves recovery after traumatic contusive injury.

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    AimThe activation of the TNFR2 receptor is beneficial in several pathologies of the central nervous system, and this study examines whether it can ameliorate the recovery process following spinal cord injury.MethodsEHD2-sc-mTNFR2 , an agonist specific for TNFR2, was used to treat neurons exposed to high levels of glutamate in vitro. In vivo, it was infused directly to the spinal cord via osmotic pumps immediately after a contusion to the cord at the T9 level. Locomotion behavior was assessed for 6 weeks, and the tissue was analyzed (lesion size, RNA and protein expression, cell death) after injury. Somatosensory evoked potentials were also measured in response to hindlimb stimulation.ResultsThe activation of TNFR2 protected neurons from glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity through the activation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase gamma in vitro and improved the locomotion of animals following spinal cord injury. The extent of the injury was not affected by infusing EHD2-sc-mTNFR2 , but higher levels of neurofilament H and 2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase were observed 6 weeks after the injury. Finally, the activation of TNFR2 after injury increased the neural response recorded in the cortex following hindlimb stimulation.ConclusionThe activation of TNFR2 in the spinal cord following contusive injury leads to enhanced locomotion and better cortical responses to hindlimb stimulation

    Impact of chronic exposure to bevacizumab on EpCAM-based detection of circulating tumor cells

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    BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are often undetected through the immunomagnetic epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based CellSearch(®) System in breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with bevacizumab (BEV), where low CTC numbers have been reported even in patients with evidence of progression of disease. To date, the reasons for this discrepancy have not been clarified. This study was carried out to investigate the molecular and phenotypic changes in CRC cells after chronic exposure to BEV in vitro. METHODS: The human CRC cell line WiDr was exposed to a clinically relevant dose of BEV for 3 months in vitro. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers and EpCAM isoforms was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence. To evaluate the impact of EpCAM variant isoforms expression on CTC enumeration by CellSearch(®), untreated and treated colon cancer cells were spiked into 7.5 mL of blood from a healthy donor and enumerated by CellSearch(®). RESULTS: Chronic exposure of CRC cell line to BEV induced decreased expression of EpCAM 40 kDa isoform and increased expression EpCAM 42 kDa isoform, together with a decreased expression of cytokeratins (CK), while no evidence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in treated cells was observed. The recovery rate of cells through CellSearch(®) was gradually reduced in course of treatment with BEV, being 84%, 70% and 40% at 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that BEV may prevent CellSearch(®) from capturing CTCs through altering EpCAM isoforms

    Intravital FRAP imaging using an E-cadherin-GFP mouse reveals disease- and drug-dependent dynamic regulation of cell-cell junctions in live tissue

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    E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions play a prominent role in maintaining the epithelial architecture. The disruption or deregulation of these adhesions in cancer can lead to the collapse of tumor epithelia that precedes invasion and subsequent metastasis. Here we generated an E-cadherin-GFP mouse that enables intravital photobleaching and quantification of E-cadherin mobility in live tissue without affecting normal biology. We demonstrate the broad applications of this mouse by examining E-cadherin regulation in multiple tissues, including mammary, brain, liver, and kidney tissue, while specifically monitoring E-cadherin mobility during disease progression in the pancreas. We assess E-cadherin stability in native pancreatic tissue upon genetic manipulation involving Kras and p53 or in response to anti-invasive drug treatment and gain insights into the dynamic remodeling of E-cadherin during in situ cancer progression. FRAP in the E-cadherin-GFP mouse, therefore, promises to be a valuable tool to fundamentally expand our understanding of E-cadherin-mediated events in native microenvironments

    His+ reversions Caused in Salmonella typhimurium by different types of ionizing radiation

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    The yield of his+ reversions in the Ames Salmonella tester strain TA2638 has been determined for 60Co γ rays, 140 kV X rays, 5.4 keV characteristic X rays, 2.2 MeV protons, 3.1 MeV α particles, and 18 MeV/U Fe ions. Inactivation studies were performed with the same radiations. For both mutation and inactivation, the maximum effectiveness per unit absorbed dose was obtained for the characteristic X rays, which have a dose averaged linear energy transfer (LET) of roughly 10 keV/μm. The ratio of the effectiveness of this radiation to γ rays was 2 for inactivation and about 1.4 for the his+ reversion. For both end points the effectiveness decreases substantially at high LET, i.e., for the α particles and the Fe ions. The composition of the bottom and the top agar was the one recommended by Maron and Ames [Mutat. Res. 113, 173-215 (1983)] for application in chemical mutagenicity tests. The experiments with the less penetrating radiations differed from the usual protocol by utilization of a technique of plating the bacteria on the surface of the top agar. As in an earlier study [Roos et al., Radiat. Res. 104, 102-108 (1985)] greatly enhanced yields of mutations, relative to the spontaneous reversion rate, were obtained in these experiments by performing the irradiations 6 h after plating, which differs from the conventional procedure to irradiate the bacteria shortly after plating
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