378 research outputs found

    A VIEW ON THE HISTORY OF LATVIAN-FRENCH CULTURAL RELATIONS BEFORE WORLD WAR II

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    Because of the geographic location of the Latvian and the French nations and of different trends in the development of their histories contacts between them were established relatively late. This in turn slowed down the development of their cultural relations. In this development, we can distinguish two stages: before the formation of the Latvian state (from the second half of the 19th century until 1918), and during the Latvian state until the Soviet occupation (1920–1940). The objective of this paper is to determine the place and the role of the Latvian-French cultural relations in the development of the Latvian culture before World War II. For this purpose, archive materials, memoirs, reference materials and available studies were used. For the main part of the research, the retrospective and historico-genetic methods were mostly used. The descriptive method was mainly used for sorting the material before the main analysis. The analysis of the material revealed that the first contacts of the Latvians with French culture were recorded in the second half of the 19th century via fine arts and French literature translated into Latvian. By the end of the century, these relations became more intense, only to decrease again a little in the beginning of the 20th century, especially in the field of translations of the French belles-lettres. The events of 1905 strengthened Latvian political emigration to France. The emigrants became acquainted with French culture directly, and part of them added French culture to their previous knowledge. The outcome of World War I and the revolution in Russia then shaped the ground for the formation of the Latvian state. This dramatically changed the nature and the intensity of the Latvian-French cultural relations. To the early trends in the cooperation, the sphere of education was added, with French schools in Latvia and Latvian students in France. In the sphere of culture, relations in theater, music and arts were established. It should be noted that also an official introduction of the French into Latvian art began at that time. As a matter of fact, such an introduction had already been started by Karlis Huns, Voldemars Matvejs, and Vilhelms Purvitis, who successfully participated in the Paris art exhibitions before the formation of the Latvian state. In the period of the Latvian state, artists would arrange their personal exhibitions in France, and general shows supported by the state would be arranged. The most notable of them were the following: - In 1928, the Latvian Ministry of Education supported the participation of all Latvian artists’ unions in the exhibition dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the state. General shows were organized in Warsaw, Budapest, Copenhagen, Paris, London, etc. (Jaunākās Ziņas, 1928: Nr. 262, 266); - in the summer of 1935, an exhibition of folk art from the Baltic states, including textiles, clothes, paintings, sculptures, and ceramics was opened in Paris; - the largest exhibition of Latvian artists in Paris took place from January 27 to February 28, 1939, with presidents of both states being in charge of its organization. It can be concluded that the Latvian-French cultural relations were an important factor in the development of Latvian culture, especially in the spheres of fine arts and literature until the Soviet occupation

    TEACHING LATVIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE MULTILINGUAL CLASSROOM: EXPERIENCE OF HUNGARY

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    Multilingualism has been highly valued in the society from ancient times. Nowadays, along with the increase of people mobility and technology development, foreign languages competence and its acquisition learning becomes increasingly important. At the same time, minority language studies, taking into account a relatively small number of their users, provide the necessary contribution to the preservation and further development of the cultural heritage of the world nations. For example, the goal of the Department for Uralic Studies, Savaria Campus of the University of West Hungary, was to create a special unit and invite specialists in order to study and promote the Central European region, its culture, as well as the ancient Amber Route that stretched from the East coast of the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic coast and the Apennine Peninsula. From 1992 to 2013, this unit offered students an opportunity to learn Latvian as a foreign language, as well as the history of Latvia and its culture, Latvian literature, folklore and ethnogenesis. This article, based on the author's personal experience, is devoted to the specifics of learning and teaching of the Latvian language to Hungarian students, as well as translating the works of the Latvian authors into Hungarian

    General Anti-Avoidance Rule in Latvian Tax Law

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    The tax law systems of the EU Member States differ strongly; one is based on the specific anti – avoidance provisions governed by the general principle of prohibition of abuse stated in court jurisprudence, the basement of the other is a written judicial rule which prohibits the abuse – general anti – avoidance rule. General anti-avoidance rules are needed because of conflicts of laws in the borders of one state as well the conflicts of different state’s jurisprudence. There is no legal definition of tax avoidance in the EU law nevertheless the notion of tax avoidance is firmly connected to the concept of abuse of law – a general principle of EU law which has got its prompt development in the resent tax case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The UK practice is undoubtedly the positive example of methodologically  precise legal ruling in the sphere of complicated abstract issues of abuse in tax law. This paper aims to describe the concept of general anti avoidance rule, comparing theoretical cognitions, regulation in Latvia and UK and also tax case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union

    DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN EU STRUCTURAL FUNDS PROJECTS IN LATVIA

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    The role of the EU Structural Funds in the national economy of Latvia is significant, yet document management problems in the projects funded by the EU Structural Funds have been little researched. In the period 2007-2019, a gradual transition to electronic project document management occurred in Latvia. The present research performed a comparative analysis of tender documents submitted for ERDF calls for project proposals for the programming periods of 2007–2013 and 2014–2020. The research found that the range of tender documents for ERDF calls for project proposals to be submitted by organisations is strictly regulated in a particular period, yet there are general instructions on how to prepare documents in accordance with the relevant legal framework of the Republic of Latvia. Organisations have to create document management systems to enhance the preparation and management of ERDF project proposal documents

    INSIGHT INTO THE PERSONALITIES’ MEMOIRS AND DOCUMENTS AFTER THE RESTORATION OF LATVIA’S INDEPENDENCE

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    The aim of this article is to get an insight into the testimonies of the prominent personalities of Latvia after the restoration of Latvia’s independence. Turning to the publications of Latvian Public and Maritime Worker Krišjānis Valdemārs, it should be noted that one of the most prominent are “the memories of D. Grīntals about K. Valdemārs” and „Krišjānis Valdemārs. Business and private correspondence. The first volume. Letters from Krisjanis Valdemārs”. Turning to the first president of Latvia, Jānis Čakste, it should be noted that the collection of documents „The truth will always win” collects all his thought records available in books, periodicals and archives: in speeches, in documents, in articles, in letters and in memories of time attendants. Which applies to the officer Jānis Balodis, it should be noted that there are not as many publications as about J. Balodis, not one of the other officers of the Latvian Army

    Vertimo situacija Latvijoje XIX a. pabaigoje – XX a. pradžioje

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    The paper looks at the Latvian translation scene at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. It is a continuation of the study of translation history in Latvia reflected in previous issues of Vertimo studijos (vol. 7, 8, 11). These decades are marked by a huge growth of translation, especially in periodicals. German was gradually losing its dominant position as a source and intermediate language, Russian was advancing, so was also the scope of other languages. In contrast to previous periods there was a particular interest in the quality of the originals and modernity.This period also saw a change of generations among translators, and women became visible in translation scene. Translators among whom there were all the great Latvian writers gradually emerged as professionals. Frequently translations had prefaces and explanations by the translators. There were numerous parallel translations of the same works, some reaching up to ten versions. Translations included various genres and the traditional Latvian interest in plays was very obvious. So was the focus on specialised literature on agriculture. The translation method changed from localisation to a fidelity mode with a tendency to apply elements of foreignisation.Tęsiant „Vertimo studijose“ (Nr. 7, 8, 11) pradėtą Latvijos vertimo istorijos temą straipsnyje aptariama vertimo situacija Latvijoje XIX a. pradžioje – XX a. pabaigoje. Šis laikotarpis išsiskiria vertimų, ypač skelbiamų periodiniuose leidiniuose, gausa. Vokiečių kalba pamažu praranda vyraujančią padėtį kaip šaltinio ir tarpinė kalba, pirmą poziciją užleisdama rusų kalbai. Be to, verčiama ir iš kitų originalo kalbų, vertimų laukas plečiasi. Šiuo laikotarpiu pastebima ir dar viena tendencija –gerokai didesnis dėmesys verčiamų originalų kokybei ir jų šiuolaikiškumui.Dar viena laikotarpio ypatybė – keičiasi vertėjų karta, atsiranda nemažai moterų vertėjų. Vertėjais dirba visi žymiausi latvių rašytojai, kurie ilgainiui virsta vertėjais profesionalais. Verstinėse knygose dažnai randame vertėjų parengtus įvadus arba paaiškinimus knygos gale. Atsiranda nemažai to paties kūrinio paralelinių vertimų, kai kurių knygų yra daugiau dešimties vertimo variantų. Verčiami įvairių žanrų tekstai, akivaizdus tradicinis latvių domėjimasis dramos kūriniais. Taip pat ir specializuota žemės ūkio literatūra. Vertimo strategijos kito: savinimo strategiją keitė ištikimybės originalui principas, ryškėjo tendencija taikyti svetiminimo strategijos elementus

    Книжное дело и библиография в Латвии и изгнании, ХХ–ХХІ век: достижения и перспективы

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    Данная статья освещает достижения в исследованиях в области книжного дела и библиографической работы в ХХ–ХХІ вв., проводившихся в Латвийской Академической библиотеке, Латвийской Национальной библиотеке и Латвийском университете

    SEARCHING FOR THE SOURCES OF 18TH AND 19TH CENTURY LATGALIAN RELIGIOUS SONGS

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    Latgalian „svātuos dzīsmis” (‘sacred songs’) were not only sung in the church in the 18th and 19th centuries. These songs became integral and necessary components of both home and spiritual life.Some publications of spiritual song and prayer books written by the Latvians of Latgale have been preserved until today: „Nabożeństwo” (1771, 1786, etc.) and „Dzismies Swatas” (1801, etc.). Of these are both first editions and reissues. These compilations represent the basic core of 19th century spiritual songs in conjunction with the book „Piļneigajā gruomotā lyugšonu” (“The Complete Book of Prayers”) published in the latter half of the century. Psalms which were written well before the birth of Christ are among the oldest religious songs. Psalms of penance and prayers for the dead were first published in Latgalian in the 1786 edition of „Nabożeństwo”.The diversity of genres of songs is surprising: songs using scriptural texts, hymns of the Fathers of the Church, sequences and antiphonies. The progress of the liturgical year was supported by additional processionary hymns, hour songs (godzinkas), descriptions of the lives of saints set to music, catechism songs and prayers which are written as prose but given a melody in order to be sung. Directly arrhythmic language and certain metrical text used for worship in prayers made it unclear exactly how many texts were in fact songs.It is not possible to determine the authors of all songs. Text recognition is also hampered by the lack of a printed Polish source – the work that the Jesuits translated to create the hymnals has not been found. Thus, for comparison of these texts it is necessary to find them in various books or consult the wider body of 19th century songs, wherein the content of songs is usually altered. The “sacred songs” examined and analyzed in this article were selected at random. The majority of songs so far sourced are from „Nabożeństwo”, but identification work continues at present
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