28,825 research outputs found

    Samisk tradisjonell kunnskap og utdanning for bærekraftig utvikling

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    Students should learn about the Sami people’s traditional knowledge and approach to nature in science education. Science teachers, therefore, must become proficient in Sami culture and traditions. Sami traditional practitioners have expertise, and it is important to bring out their voices. In this case study, six reindeer owners are interviewed, and the results show that the siida welcomes student participation in reindeer herding as a means of enabling students to learn about Sami culture and language. Sami traditional knowledge is strongly linked to nature and can help to strengthen students’ connection to nature. Strong connections to natureincrease environmental awareness and can contribute to students making more sustainable choices. Learning about Sami traditional knowledge together with Sami reindeer herders in nature as a learning arena embraces several elements in education for sustainable development and is a context that lends itself well to socio-scientific issues as education for sustainable development

    What is known about the health and living conditions of the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia, the Sami?

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    The Sami are the indigenous ethnic population of northern Scandinavia. Their health condition is poorly known, although the knowledge has improved over the last decade.The aim was to review the current information on mortality, diseases, and risk factor exposure in the Swedish Sami population.Health-related research on Sami cohorts published in scientific journals and anthologies was used to compare the health condition among the Sami and the majority non-Sami population. When relevant, data from the Sami populations in Swedish were compared with corresponding data from Norwegian and Finnish Sami populations.Life expectancy and mortality patterns of the Sami are similar to those of the majority population. Small differences in incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. The traditional Sami lifestyle seems to contain elements that reduce the risk to develop cancer and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. physical activity, diet rich in antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids, and a strong cultural identity. Reindeer herding is an important cultural activity among the Sami and is associated with high risks for accidents. Pain in the lower back, neck, shoulders, elbows, and hands are frequent among both men and women in reindeer-herding families. For men, these symptoms are related to high exposure to terrain vehicles, particularly snowmobile, whereas for women psychosocial risk factors seem to more important, e.g. poor social support, high effort, low reward, and high economical responsibilities.Although the health condition of the Sami population appears to be rather similar to that of the general Swedish population, a number of specific health problems have been identified, especially among the reindeer-herding Sami. Most of these problems have their origin in marginalization and poor knowledge of the reindeer husbandry and the Sami culture in the majority population. It is suggested that the most sustainable measure to improve the health among the reindeer-herding Sami would be to improve the conditions of the reindeer husbandry and the Sami culture

    Traditional ecological knowledge among Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden about vascular plants grazed by reindeer

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    Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish) were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal) or snow (as physical element). The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance

    The influence of cultural background in intercultural dementia care: exemplified by Sami patients

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    Vitenskapelig artikkel. Omhandler betydningen av kultur i kommunikasjon med samiske personer med demens.Aim: To gain knowledge about how the original culture may influence communication and interaction with institutionalised patiens with dementia and of what particular cultural aspects may come to the fore, exemplified by Sami patients. Method: Qualitative narrative interviews with 15 interviewees, family members of Sami patients with dementia and nursing staff experienced with dementia care were conducted. Hermeneutic, thematic analysis was used. Findings: Although the way dementia influence mental functions, language, etc. is universal, behaviours, reactions and responses may be coloured by patient's background culture. Knowledge of language, cultural codes and the patient's former life are primary keys to understanding. Rhythm of life, spirituality, sining and tangible aspects of traditional culture like clothes and food constitute important aspects of culture-appropriate care

    Managing mountains, past and present conditions for traditional summer farming and Sami reindeer husbandry in northern Scandinavia

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    Traditional land use and conditions for maintenance of biodiversity are often interlinked. When land use changes and ecosystems change as a result, there is a risk to loose both the traditional ecological knowledge and the biodiversity connected to this land use. This thesis focuses on traditional land use, summer farming and Sami reindeer husbandry, in the mountain areas of northern Scandinavia (mainly Sweden), in a historical and contemporary perspective. The overall aim is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for the traditional land use in the Scandinavian (mainly Swedish) mountains, using the concepts of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and a historical-ecological perspective. Both summer farming and reindeer husbandry are under strong external pressure and face large challenges today. Some of these challenges are shared and some differ between the two types of northern pastoralism. Scandinavian summer farmers experience that different views on their land use from different authorities affect them negatively. The increasing populations of large carnivores also worry the summer farmers. Recent depredation rates are in fact of the same level as historically (around 1900). Interviews showed that traditional knowledge about protective measures had eroded during years without carnivores, but also that farming practices have changed recently and that new knowledge developed. Sami plant use has been studied historically, but information about Sami plant management of Angelica archangelica was not documented. We argue that Sami ecological knowledge should be used to ensure sustainable harvest methods. Today traditional reindeer husbandry faces severe problems due to the reduction of winter grazing land by different encroachments, most importantly from modern forestry. The negative effects are even larger since increasingly difficult winter conditions create a need for a wider range of good grazing areas. Traditional knowledge is essential in the herders¬ī daily work, but the usability of the knowledge is severely constrained by recent changes. In the future planning of an ecologically and socially sustainable mountain management it is necessary to work with traditional land users and integrate their traditional knowledge

    Archaeology and the debate on the transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism.

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    The distinctive Sami historical land use concerning reindeer management and settlement of inner Troms, North Norway, is reflected in places with archaeological remains. The insight and knowledge connected with these places can be accessed through oral traditions and place-names where reindeer management is embedded in reindeer knowledge developed over long time spans. Previous distinctions between wild reindeer hunting and pastoral herding can be redefined, since much of the traditional knowledge concerning the wild reindeer (goddi) may have been transferred to the domesticated animals (boazu). The transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism is a current research focus and archaeological results from inner Troms indicate that several Sami dwellings with √°rran (hearths) are related to a transitional period from AD 1300 to 1400. This period is marked by a reorganisation of the inland Sami siida (collective communities), and changes in landscape use wherein seasonal cycles and grazing access began to determine the movements of people and their domestic reindeer herds. This reorganisation was a response to both external political relations and the inner dynamic of the Sami communities. The first use of tamed reindeer was as decoys and draft animals in the hunting economy, only later becoming the mainstay of household food supply in reindeer pastoralism, providing insurance for future uncertainties. The formation of the national border between Norway-Denmark and Sweden in 1751 led to extensive changes in the previously trans-national mobility pattern, leading to fragmentation of the old siidas and to a new stage of nomadic pastoral economy

    Archaeology and the debate on the transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism

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    The distinctive Sami historical land use concerning reindeer management and settlement of inner Troms, North Norway, is reflected in places with archaeological remains. The insight and knowledge connected with these places can be accessed through oral traditions and place-names where reindeer management is embedded in reindeer knowledge developed over long time spans. Previous distinctions between wild reindeer hunting and pastoral herding can be redefined, since much of the traditional knowledge concerning the wild reindeer (goddi) may have been transferred to the domesticated animals (boazu). The transition from reindeer hunting to pastoralism is a current research focus and archaeological results from inner Troms indicate that several Sami dwellings with árran (hearths) are related to a transitional period from AD 1300 to 1400. This period is marked by a reorganisation of the inland Sami siida (collective communities), and changes in landscape use wherein seasonal cycles and grazing access began to determine the movements of people and their domestic reindeer herds. This reorganisation was a response to both external political relations and the inner dynamic of the Sami communities. The first use of tamed reindeer was as decoys and draft animals in the hunting economy, only later becoming the mainstay of household food supply in reindeer pastoralism, providing insurance for future uncertainties. The formation of the national border between Norway-Denmark and Sweden in 1751 led to extensive changes in the previously trans-national mobility pattern, leading to fragmentation of the old siidas and to a new stage of nomadic pastoral economy

    The Institutional Process of Repatriation of Indigenous Heritage: The Case of the Sami Drum Freavnantjahke gievrie

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    This paper addresses the repatriation debate about the South Sami Freavnantjahke gievrie that was taken from its owner, the Sami Bendix Andersen Frennings Fjeld, in 1723 by the missionary Thomas von Westen. After the confiscation, the drum came to the Danish royal family and was gifted in 1757 to the noble family Saxony-Hildburghausen in what is now Thuringia, Germany. Today the gievrie is in possession of the Meininger Museen. In 2017, the drum was exhibited on loan in Trondheim at the exhibition "Hvem eier historien?" [Who owns history?], which was the impetus for the repatriation debate. The South Sami Museum Saemien Sijte requested a meeting with the German museum in 2021 to discuss a repatriation of the drum. This thesis explores the different perspectives of Saemien Sijte and the Meininger Museen on the Freavnantjahke gievrie, its value to their institutions and the affects that its repatriation could have on their respective communities. Through interviews with the museum directors, Dr. Birgitta Fossum and Dr. Philipp Adlung, their positions on repatriation, identity, traditional knowledge, colonization as well as decolonization in relation to museums are presented. The drum’s contemporary value for the South Sami community is examined in context of Sami history, previous repatriation projects of Sami cultural heritage and research by non-Sami scholars. Through the insight into the interest of both institutions in managing and displaying the drum this work seeks to identify the challenges and opportunities that the repatriation of the Freavnantjahke gievrie entails and contribute to the debate

    From the Arran to the internet : Sami storytelling in digital environments

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    This essay investigates the use of storytelling in the process of cultural and linguistic revitalization through specific contemporary examples drawn from the Internet. By examining instances of adaptation of Sami tales and legends to digital environments, I discuss new premises and challenges for the emergence of such narratives. In particular, within a contemporary context characterized by an increasing variety of media and channels, as well as by an improvement in minority politics, it is important to examine how expressive culture and traditional modes of expression are transposed and negotiated. The rich Sami storytelling tradition is a central form of cultural expression. Its role in the articulation of norms, values, and discourses within the community has been emphasized in previous research (Balto 1997; Cocq 2008; Fjellstrom 1986); it is a means for learning and communicating valuable knowledge--a shared understanding.Not

    Historical land-use information from culturally modified trees

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    In a global perspective, the human impact on forest ecosystems varies greatly in type, frequency and magnitude. Knowledge of the history of forest use is crucial for understanding the development of forests, which in turn helps to understand how societies react to forest development. Culturally modified trees (CMTs), recorded in the western U.S., northern Scandinavia and south-eastern Australia, are features that can be dated precisely, and they bear witness to unique events of human activity. CMTs are traces from historical uses of forest resources that reflect the activities of local communities and extend far back in time, and therefore offer information not usually available from other sources. In this thesis I argue that CMTs have high potential for assessing human activity and possibly human impacts on forest ecosystems, particularly those concerning local indigenous uses. Periods of increased activity in a certain area are reflected in peaks in the distribution of CMT dates. These also show the time period and speed of abandonment of a traditional forest use in a landscape. The possibility to learn about the people, their behaviour and activities in the forest are good, but their impact on ecosystems will always be difficult to assess when only CMT data are available. Therefore, it is important to learn as much as possible about traditional customs expressed in CMTs, in combination with oral and ethnological sources, and the role of CMTs in the traditional use of the forest. In this way it is possible to estimate what the density and distribution of CMTs in the landscape actually tells us about historical impact on the ecosystem. CMTs contradict the idea of ‚Äúpristine‚ÄĚ forests but symbolize the traditional view that people are part of nature rather than separate from it
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