8,804 research outputs found

    Endovascular Treatment for Ischemic Stroke:Identifying factors to improve outcome and alternative methods to evaluate treatment effect

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    Despite the overall treatment effect of EVT is highly effective, there are many targets to further improve patient outcomes. In this thesis, we identified factors influencing outcome after EVT and evaluated alternative approaches for study design to accelerate research on new therapeutic strategies. Based on our findings, we recommend to perform EVT under local anesthesia instead of conscious sedation if this is considered safe. Besides, large drops in periprocedural blood pressure should be avoided as these are associated with worse outcomes. Blood pressure on hospital admission is not an argument to withhold or delay EVT for ischemic stroke as blood pressure does not negate the effect of EVT. Furthermore, prevention of post-procedural adverse events has a great potential to further improve outcomes in successfully reperfused patients.A reduced infarct volume after EVT explains one third of treatment benefit in terms of neurological deficit. Development of new imaging techniques for accurate, reliable assessment of brain tissue viability is of importance to further improve both stroke research and clinical practice. Another future direction for EVT research is the use of cohorts of synthetic stroke patients for the development and validation of prediction tools, decision model analysis, and in-silico trials, as we demonstrated statistical methods to generate realistic cohorts of synthetic stroke patients.<br/

    The role of nursing in multimorbidity care

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    Background Multimorbidity (the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions in the same person) affects around one in three persons, and it is strongly associated with a range of negative outcomes including worsening physical function, increased health care use, and premature death. Due to the way healthcare is provided to people with multimorbidity, treatment can become burdensome, fragmented and inefficient. In people with palliative conditions, multimorbidity is increasingly common. Better models of care are needed. Methods A mixed-methods programme of research designed to inform the development of a nurse-led intervention for people with multimorbidity and palliative conditions. A mixed-methods systematic review explored nurse-led interventions for multimorbidity and their effects on outcomes. A cross-sectional study of 63,328 emergency department attenders explored the association between multimorbidity, complex multimorbidity (≥3 conditions affecting ≥3 body systems), and disease-burden on healthcare use and inpatient mortality. A focussed ethnographic study of people with multimorbidity and life-limiting conditions and their carers (n=12) explored the concept of treatment burden. Findings Nurse-led interventions for people with multimorbidity generally focus on care coordination (i.e., case management or transitional care); patients view them positively, but they do not reliably reduce health care use or costs. Multimorbidity and complex multimorbidity were significantly associated with admission from the emergency department and reattendance within 30 and 90 days. The association was greater in those with more conditions. There was no association with inpatient mortality. People with multimorbidity and palliative conditions experienced treatment burden in a manner consistent with existing theoretical models. This thesis also noted the effect of uncertainty on the balance between capacity and workload and proposes a model of how these concepts relate to one another. Discussion This thesis addresses a gap in what is known about the role of nurses in providing care to the growing number of people with multimorbidity. A theory-based nurse-led intervention is proposed which prioritises managing treatment burden and uncertainty. Conclusions Nursing in an age of multimorbidity necessitates a perspective shift which conceptualises chronic conditions as multiple overlapping phenomena situated within an individual. The role of the nurse should be to help patients navigate the complexity of living with multiple chronic conditions

    Animal Models for Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: A Critical Narrative Literature Review

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    \ua9 2024, The Author(s). This literature review will provide a critical narrative overview of the highlights and potential pitfalls of the reported animal models for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and will identify the neglected aspects of this research area. There exists significant heterogeneity in the literature regarding the methodology used to create the model and the predefined duration after the insult when the model is supposedly fully fit for evaluations and/or for testing various therapeutic interventions. The literature is also replete with examples wherein the implementation of a specific model varies significantly across different studies. For example, the concentration of the chemical, as well as its duration and technique of exposure in a chemically induced LSCD model, has a great impact not only on the validity of the model but also on the severity of the complications. Furthermore, while some models induce a full-blown clinical picture of total LSCD, some are hindered by their ability to yield only partial LSCD. Another aspect to consider is the nature of the damage induced by a specific method. As thermal methods cause more stromal scarring, they may be better suited for assessing the anti-fibrotic properties of a particular treatment. On the other hand, since chemical burns cause more neovascularisation, they provide the opportunity to tap into the potential treatments for anti-neovascularisation. The animal species (i.e., rats, mice, rabbits, etc.) is also a crucial factor in the validity of the model and its potential for clinical translation, with each animal having its unique set of advantages and disadvantages. This review will also elaborate on other overlooked aspects, such as the anaesthetic(s) used during experiments, the gender of the animals, care after LSCD induction, and model validation. The review will conclude by providing future perspectives and suggestions for further developments in this rather important area of research

    Otitis media: recent advances in otitis media vaccine development and model systems

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    Otitis media is an inflammatory disorder of the middle ear caused by airways-associated bacterial or viral infections. It is one of the most common childhood infections as globally more than 80% of children are diagnosed with acute otitis media by 3 years of age and it is a common reason for doctor’s visits, antibiotics prescriptions, and surgery among children. Otitis media is a multifactorial disease with various genetic, immunologic, infectious, and environmental factors predisposing children to develop ear infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common culprits responsible for acute otitis media. Despite the massive global disease burden, the pathogenesis of otitis media is still unclear and requires extensive future research. Antibiotics are the preferred treatment to cure middle ear infections, however, the antimicrobial resistance rate of common middle ear pathogens has increased considerably over the years. At present, pneumococcal and influenza vaccines are administered as a preventive measure against otitis media, nevertheless, these vaccines are only beneficial in preventing carriage and/or disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Otitis media caused by non-vaccine serotype pneumococci, non-typeable H. influenza, and M. catarrhalis remain an important healthcare burden. The development of multi-species vaccines is an arduous process but is required to reduce the global burden of this disease. Many novel vaccines against S. pneumoniae, non-typeable H. influenza, and M. catarrhalis are in preclinical trials. It is anticipated that these vaccines will lower the disease burden and provide better protection against otitis media. To study disease pathology the rat, mouse, and chinchilla are commonly used to induce experimental acute otitis media to test new therapeutics, including antibiotics and vaccines. Each of these models has its advantages and disadvantages, yet there is still a need to develop an improved animal model providing a better correlated mechanistic understanding of human middle ear infections, thereby underpinning the development of more effective otitis media therapeutics. This review provides an updated summary of current vaccines against otitis media, various animal models of otitis media, their limitations, and some future insights in this field providing a springboard in the development of new animal models and novel vaccines for otitis media

    Behaviour change intervention for toothbrushing (lesson and text messages) to prevent dental caries in secondary school pupils: The BRIGHT randomized control trial

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    Objectives: This multicentre, assessor‐blinded, two‐arm cluster randomized trial evaluated the clinical and cost‐effectiveness of a behaviour change intervention promoting toothbrushing for preventing dental caries in UK secondary schools. Methods: Pupils aged 11–13 years with their own mobile telephone attending secondary schools with above average free school meals eligibility were randomized (at year‐group level) to receive a lesson and twice‐daily text messages or to usual care. Year‐groups (n = 84) from 42 schools including 4680 pupils (intervention, n = 2262; control, n = 2418) were randomized. Results: In 2383 participants with valid data at baseline and 2.5 years, the primary outcome of presence of at least one treated or untreated carious lesion (D4‐6 MFT [Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth] in permanent teeth using International Caries Detection and Assessment System) was 44.6% in the intervention group and 43.0% in control (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.85–1.26, p = .72). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes of presence of at least one treated or untreated carious lesion (D1‐6 MFT), number of D4‐6 MFT and D1‐6 MFT, plaque and bleeding scores or health‐related‐ (Child Health Utility 9D) or oral health‐related‐ quality of life (CARIES‐QC). However, twice‐daily toothbrushing, reported by 77.6% of pupils at baseline, increased at 6 months (intervention, 86.9%; control, 83.0%; OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03–1.63, p = .03), but returned to no difference at 2.5 years (intervention, 81.0%; control, 79.9%; OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.84–1.30, p = .69). Estimated incremental costs and quality‐adjusted life‐years (QALYs) of the intervention, relative to control, were £1.02 (95% CI −1.29 to 3.23) and −0.003 (95% CI −0.009 to 0.002), respectively, with a 7% chance of being cost‐effective (£20 000/QALY gained threshold). Conclusion: There was no evidence of statistically significant difference for caries prevalence at 2.5‐years. The intervention's positive 6‐month toothbrushing behaviour change did not translate into caries reduction. (ISRCTN 12139369). COVID‐19 pandemic adversly affected follow‐up

    It doesn't end with closure:Optimizing health care throughout life after esophageal atresia repair

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    It doesn't end with closure:Optimizing health care throughout life after esophageal atresia repair

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    Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in acute haemorrhage

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    Tranexamic acid is a synthetic haemostatic drug that inhibits fibrinolysis. It is effective in reducing bleeding and mortality, although to different extents in trauma, peripartum, and surgical settings. It is generally safe and inexpensive with few adverse reactions, although further studies are needed to assess its safety in settings of high thromboembolic risk

    RECENT ADVANCES IN MOLECULAR MEDICINE AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH

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