7,175 research outputs found

    Sleep Timing in Late Autumn and Late Spring Associates With Light Exposure Rather Than Sun Time in College Students

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    Timing of the human sleep-wake cycle is determined by social constraints, biological processes (sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythmicity) and environmental factors, particularly natural and electrical light exposure. To what extent seasonal changes in the light-dark cycle affect sleep timing and how this varies between weekdays and weekends has not been firmly established. We examined sleep and activity patterns during weekdays and weekends in late autumn (standard time, ST) and late spring (daylight saving time, DST), and expressed their timing in relation to three environmental reference points: clock-time, solar noon (SN) which occurs one clock hour later during DST than ST, and the midpoint of accumulated light exposure (50% LE). Observed sleep timing data were compared to simulated data from a mathematical model for the effects of light on the circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep. A total of 715 days of sleep timing and light exposure were recorded in 19 undergraduates in a repeated-measures observational study. During each three-week assessment, light and activity were monitored, and self-reported bed and wake times were collected. Light exposure was higher in spring than in autumn. 50% LE did not vary across season, but occurred later on weekends compared to weekdays. Relative to clock-time, bedtime, wake-time, mid-sleep, and midpoint of activity were later on weekends but did not differ across seasons. Relative to SN, sleep and activity measures were earlier in spring than in autumn. Relative to 50% LE, only wake-time and mid-sleep were later on weekends, with no seasonal differences. Individual differences in mid-sleep did not correlate with SN but correlated with 50% LE. Individuals with different habitual bedtimes responded similarly to seasonal changes. Model simulations showed that light exposure patterns are sufficient to explain sleep timing in spring but less so in autumn. The findings indicate that during autumn and spring, the timing of sleep associates with actual light exposure rather than sun time as indexed by SN

    Differences in Ethnic/Racial Diversity of Texas Community College First-Time in College Full-Time Students Over Time: A Multiyear, Statewide Analysis

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    In this multiyear, statewide empirical investigation, the degree to which ethnic/racial diversity of first-time in college full-time Texas community college students changed from the 1999-2000 through the 2014-2015 academic years was determined.  Over this time period, the percentage of Hispanic first-time in college full-time Texas community college students showed a statistically significant increase, whereas the percentage of White first-time in college full-time students statistically significantly decreased.  No changes were noted with respect to either Black or Asian first-time in college full-time college students during this time period.  Although some improvement was noted in the ethnic-racial diversity of Texas first-time in college full-time students, more work remains.  Implications for policy and recommendations for research were provided

    Psychological Inflexibility Predicts Suicidality Over Time in College Students

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    Objective: It is essential to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted to reduce suicidal ideation (SI) and behavior in college students. Psychological inflexibility, a pattern of responding to internal experiences in a literal and rigid way, and attempting to control those experiences even when it interferes with valued living, could theoretically lead to SI or increase its intensity. Method: Psychological inflexibility and its component processes were tested as a predictor of SI in a longitudinal survey of college students (n = 603, age M = 20.62, 68.9% female, and 94.0% White) in a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal hierarchical regression models, controlling for relevant predictors such as distress and baseline SI. Interactions were also tested between psychological inflexibility and distress, cognitive defusion, values obstruction, and values progress in predicting SI. Results: Psychological inflexibility predicted SI cross-sectionally and longitudinally, controlling for distress and baseline SI. Psychological inflexibility interacted with distress, cognitive fusion, and values progress such that distress, cognitive fusion, and values progress had the strongest association with suicidal ideation among those who were high in psychological inflexibility. Conclusions: Psychological inflexibility may be a useful mechanism to target for suicide prevention in college students

    Hell of a Life

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    This paper reflects on the work completed for the Storytelling and the Life of Faith Colloquium. It reflects on the author\u27s time in college, time abroad, life, and the course itself. It includes not only introspections on the course readings but also the larger course themes including the use of memory, and universal truths — be there any. It’s about struggle, the internal and the external, it’s an overview of a lot of realizations the author had during her college career. It’s about learning to be ok with the fluctuation called life

    Sexual Violence and Relationship Abuse among College Students: The Bystander Intervention Process

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    This project investigated how college students describe bystander intervention in the context of sexual violence and relationship abuse compared to intervention in a general helping situation. The participants were 53 undergraduate students at a New England University. Prior to graduation, all of the participants were asked questions via audio controlled, face-to-face qualitative interviews that related to their helping behaviors during their time in college. The participant responses revealed that general helping is often a simple, one-time event if time permits it. However, helping in the context of sexual violence or relationship abuse revealed many serious barriers for the bystander due to the complex nature of the situations. An updated model of intervention that takes this type of help into consideration is suggested in order to provide a schema for those who step in and help in a situation involving sexual violence or relationship abuse

    Handgrip Strength, Pinch Grip Strength, and Screen Time in College-Age Adults and Older Adults

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    Smartphones have become an essential part of daily life for people of all ages, serving as a vital tool for communication, information, and entertainment. However, excessive smartphone use can lead to addiction-like behavior and musculoskeletal issues, with the extent and characteristics of problematic usage varying by age. PURPOSE: The purpose was two-fold: (1) Investigate the differences in handgrip strength (HGS), pinch grip strength (PGS), and total screen time between college-age individuals (18-to-25 years old; n = 50) and older adults (50+ years old; n = 50); (2) Explore correlations between HGS, PGS, and total screen time in college-age individuals and older adults. METHODS: Participants’ weeklong screen time was retrieved directly from their smartphones. HGS and tip, key, and palmar PGS were measured using dynamometers. Participants completed three consecutive maximum effort trials of HGS and PGS with dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) hands. RESULTS: Independent samples t-tests were used to determine differences in all dependent variables between the two groups. There were significant differences in HGS (D and ND), tip, key, and palmar PGS (D and ND) between groups, favoring college-aged individuals. The college-age group had significantly more screen time compared to the older adults. Pearson’s bivariate correlations examined relationships among all variables separately for both groups. In the college-age group, a weak positive relationship between total screen time and ND HGS was found (r = 0.296; p \u3c 0.01). In older adults, strong to moderate relationships between total screen time and HGS (D and ND) and all PGS were found (r = 0.643 to 0.828; p \u3c 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study underscores the impact of age on HGS, PGS, and screen time habits. Younger individuals tend to exhibit greater HGS/PGS and increased screen time. Interestingly, HGS was weakly correlated to screen time in young adults, but strong correlations between HGS, PGS, and screen time were found in older adults. These findings offer valuable insights into the relationships between physical health and smartphone usage with potential implications for future research and interventions aimed at promoting well-being in an increasingly digitalized world

    Impostor Phenomenon, College-Going Knowledge, and Staff Expectations: Ramifications on First Time in College Students Enrollment

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    A lack of technically trained, skilled, and educated workforce has become a critical issue in Texas. Furthermore, an educated workforce improves communities and individuals with economic, health, and personal benefits. Community colleges not only provide open-access admissions and low-cost tuition but are specifically aligned with educating the technical and industrial skilled workforce. Although a post-high school education has never been more accessible or necessary for obtaining high-earning jobs, post-high school college enrollment is declining, and conventional reform strategies do not appear to be effecting change. Graduating high school students aspire to attend postsecondary training by applying and being accepted but are not following through to register and attend. Friction points occur between aspiring or applying to college and registering or attending school, leading to a phenomenon known as summer melt. Two identified possible friction points are impostor phenomenon (IP) and college-going knowledge. IP is a belief that one’s successes are not based on one’s abilities and aptitudes but instead on luck or other external forces, and therefore, the individual believes that he or she is a fake, living in fear of being discovered as an imposter. College-going knowledge is the knowledge regarding admissions, financial aid, housing, and other college jargon that makes up the students’ social capital easily transitioning to the higher education environment. IP is well documented in higher education and specifically in first-generation college students. Acting as institutional agents, student services staff may mediate high levels of IP feelings and low levels of college-going knowledge. The findings from this study indicated that many first-time in college students experience moderate to high levels of IP, with the majority frequently having occurrences of IP. There was no significant difference between first-generation college students and continuing-generation college students. Additionally, the college-going knowledge of the vi majority of students was high. New staff had higher expectations of students’ levels of college-going knowledge, while experienced staff held low expectations. Findings from this body of work can be used to influence curriculum development in higher education graduate programs and staff or faculty training on IP and how to assist students in redefining their academic identity

    A Comparative Exploration Into First Time in College Student Academic Performance in Face-to-Face Versus Remote Learning Environments

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    In spring 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced educational systems to transition into an emergency remote learning modality. This quantitative study compared retention and productive grade rates of two 16-week academic semesters and compared face-to-face (fall 2019) and remote (fall 2020) emergency remote instruction. The study sample was drawn from the core courses of History, English, and Speech at San Antonio College. Those courses were selected in part due to the high proportion of first time in college students who were considered a vulnerable population regarding performance and persistence. Additional variables (i.e., gender, veteran status, first-generation status, and socio-economic status) were examined to determine whether they were predictors of either productive grade rate or retention. The findings suggested no difference between productive grade rates but higher retention in the face-to-face semester. The findings also indicated that gender (female) was predictive in both modalities, but no other variables were. At a minimum, those results suggested the importance of local assessment of predictors of student success in general, and when making decisions related to remote learning in particular. Finally, results of this study suggested that despite concerns regarding the scholastic impact on students and faculty forced into emergency remote instruction, that did not adversely affect student outcomes
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