20,876 research outputs found

    Directed evolution converts subtilisin E into a functional equivalent of thermitase

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    We used directed evolution to convert Bacillus subtilis subtilisin E into an enzyme functionally equivalent to its thermophilic homolog thermitase from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. Five generations of random mutagenesis, recombination and screening created subtilisin E 5-3H5, whose half-life at 83°C (3.5 min) and temperature optimum for activity (Topt, 76°C) are identical with those of thermitase. The Topt of the evolved enzyme is 17°C higher and its half-life at 65°C is >200 times that of wild-type subtilisin E. In addition, 5-3H5 is more active towards the hydrolysis of succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide than wild-type at all temperatures from 10 to 90°C. Thermitase differs from subtilisin E at 157 amino acid positions. However, only eight amino acid substitutions were sufficient to convert subtilisin E into an enzyme equally thermostable. The eight substitutions, which include known stabilizing mutations (N218S, N76D) and also several not previously reported, are distributed over the surface of the enzyme. Only two (N218S, N181D) are found in thermitase. Directed evolution provides a powerful tool to unveil mechanisms of thermal adaptation and is an effective and efficient approach to increasing thermostability without compromising enzyme activity

    Protein and DNA sequence determinants of thermophilic adaptation

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    Prokaryotes living at extreme environmental temperatures exhibit pronounced signatures in the amino acid composition of their proteins and nucleotide compositions of their genomes reflective of adaptation to their thermal environments. However, despite significant efforts, the definitive answer of what are the genomic and proteomic compositional determinants of Optimal Growth Temperature of prokaryotic organisms remained elusive. Here the authors performed a comprehensive analysis of amino acid and nucleotide compositional signatures of thermophylic adaptation by exhaustively evaluating all combinations of amino acids and nucleotides as possible determinants of Optimal Growth Temperature for all prokaryotic organisms with fully sequences genomes.. The authors discovered that total concentration of seven amino acids in proteomes, IVYWREL, serves as a universal proteomic predictor of Optimal Growth Temperature in prokaryotes. Resolving the old-standing controversy the authors determined that the variation in nucleotide composition (increase of purine load, or A+G content with temperature) is largely a consequence of thermal adaptation of proteins. However, the frequency with which A and G nucleotides appear as nearest neighbors in genome sequences is strongly and independently correlated with Optimal Growth Temperature. as a result of codon bias in corresponding genomes. Together these results provide a complete picture of proteomic and genomic determinants of thermophilic adaptation.Comment: in press PLoS Computational Biology; revised versio

    Mutagenesis of Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase I: impact of expression host on activity and stability at elevated temperatures.

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    BackgroundTrichoderma reesei is a key cellulase source for economically saccharifying cellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels. Lignocellulose hydrolysis at temperatures above the optimum temperature of T. reesei cellulases (~50°C) could provide many significant advantages, including reduced viscosity at high-solids loadings, lower risk of microbial contamination during saccharification, greater compatibility with high-temperature biomass pretreatment, and faster rates of hydrolysis. These potential advantages motivate efforts to engineer T. reesei cellulases that can hydrolyze lignocellulose at temperatures ranging from 60-70°C.ResultsA B-factor guided approach for improving thermostability was used to engineer variants of endoglucanase I (Cel7B) from T. reesei (TrEGI) that are able to hydrolyze cellulosic substrates more rapidly than the recombinant wild-type TrEGI at temperatures ranging from 50-70°C. When expressed in T. reesei, TrEGI variant G230A/D113S/D115T (G230A/D113S/D115T Tr_TrEGI) had a higher apparent melting temperature (3°C increase in Tm) and improved half-life at 60°C (t1/2 = 161 hr) than the recombinant (T. reesei host) wild-type TrEGI (t1/2 = 74 hr at 60°C, Tr_TrEGI). Furthermore, G230A/D113S/D115T Tr_TrEGI showed 2-fold improved activity compared to Tr_TrEGI at 65°C on solid cellulosic substrates, and was as efficient in hydrolyzing cellulose at 60°C as Tr_TrEGI was at 50°C. The activities and stabilities of the recombinant TrEGI enzymes followed similar trends but differed significantly in magnitude depending on the expression host (Escherichia coli cell-free, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa, or T. reesei). Compared to N.crassa-expressed TrEGI, S. cerevisiae-expressed TrEGI showed inferior activity and stability, which was attributed to the lack of cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine in Sc_TrEGI and not to differences in glycosylation. N-terminal pyroglutamate formation in TrEGI expressed in S. cerevisiae was found to be essential in elevating its activity and stability to levels similar to the T. reesei or N. crassa-expressed enzyme, highlighting the importance of this ubiquitous modification in GH7 enzymes.ConclusionStructure-guided evolution of T. reesei EGI was used to engineer enzymes with increased thermal stability and activity on solid cellulosic substrates. Production of TrEGI enzymes in four hosts highlighted the impact of the expression host and the role of N-terminal pyroglutamate formation on the activity and stability of TrEGI enzymes

    Cellulase immobilization on superparamagnetic nanoparticles for reuse in cellulosic biomass conversion

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    Current cellulosic biomass hydrolysis is based on the one-time use of cellulases. Cellulases immobilized on magnetic nanocarriers offer the advantages of magnetic separation and repeated use for continuous hydrolysis. Most immobilization methods focus on only one type of cellulase. Here, we report co-immobilization of two types of cellulases, β-glucosidase A (BglA) and cellobiohydrolase D (CelD), on sub-20 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles demonstrated 100% immobilization efficiency for both BglA and CelD. The total enzyme activities of immobilized BglA and CelD were up to 67.1% and 41.5% of that of the free cellulases, respectively. The immobilized BglA and CelD each retained about 85% and 43% of the initial immobilized enzyme activities after being recycled 3 and 10 times, respectively. The effects of pH and temperature on the immobilized cellulases were also investigated. Co-immobilization of BglA and CelD on MNPs is a promising strategy to promote synergistic action of cellulases while lowering enzyme consumption

    SCHEMA Recombination of a Fungal Cellulase Uncovers a Single Mutation That Contributes Markedly to Stability

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    A quantitative linear model accurately (R^2 = 0.88) describes the thermostabilities of 54 characterized members of a family of fungal cellobiohydrolase class II (CBH II) cellulase chimeras made by SCHEMA recombination of three fungal enzymes, demonstrating that the contributions of SCHEMA sequence blocks to stability are predominantly additive. Thirty-one of 31 predicted thermostable CBH II chimeras have thermal inactivation temperatures higher than the most thermostable parent CBH II, from Humicola insolens, and the model predicts that hundreds more CBH II chimeras share this superior thermostability. Eight of eight thermostable chimeras assayed hydrolyze the solid cellulosic substrate Avicel at temperatures at least 5 °C above the most stable parent, and seven of these showed superior activity in 16-h Avicel hydrolysis assays. The sequence-stability model identified a single block of sequence that adds 8.5 °C to chimera thermostability. Mutating individual residues in this block identified the C313S substitution as responsible for the entire thermostabilizing effect. Introducing this mutation into the two recombination parent CBH IIs not featuring it (Hypocrea jecorina and H. insolens) decreased inactivation, increased maximum Avicel hydrolysis temperature, and improved long time hydrolysis performance. This mutation also stabilized and improved Avicel hydrolysis by Phanerochaete chrysosporium CBH II, which is only 55–56% identical to recombination parent CBH IIs. Furthermore, the C313S mutation increased total H. jecorina CBH II activity secreted by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression host more than 10-fold. Our results show that SCHEMA structure-guided recombination enables quantitative prediction of cellulase chimera thermostability and efficient identification of stabilizing mutations

    Caldolysin, a highly active protease from an extremely Thermophilic Bacterium

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    Proteases comprise a significant proportion of those proteins which have been subject to detailed characterisation (amino acid sequence and high resolution crystallographic analysis). The extent of research interest in proteolytic enzymes reflects both their historical status, and the practical advantages of proteases as research subjects (available in quantity, extracellular etc.) widely occurring
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