2,785,112 research outputs found

    Ability of ╬│╬┤ T cells to modulate the Foxp3 T cell response is dependent on adenosine.

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    Whether ╬│╬┤ T cells inhibit or enhance the Foxp3 T cell response depends upon their activation status. The critical enhancing effector in the supernatant is adenosine. Activated ╬│╬┤ T cells express adenosine receptors at high levels, which enables them to deprive Foxp3+ T cells of adenosine, and to inhibit their expansion. Meanwhile, cell-free supernatants of ╬│╬┤ T cell cultures enhance Foxp3 T cell expansion. Thus, inhibition and enhancement by ╬│╬┤ T cells of Foxp3 T cell response are a reflection of the balance between adenosine production and absorption by ╬│╬┤ T cells. Non-activated ╬│╬┤ T cells produce adenosine but bind little, and thus enhance the Foxp3 T cell response. Activated ╬│╬┤ T cells express high density of adenosine receptors and have a greatly increased ability to bind adenosine. Extracellular adenosine metabolism and expression of adenosine receptor A2ARs by ╬│╬┤ T cells played a major role in the outcome of ╬│╬┤ and Foxp3 T cell interactions. A better understanding of the functional conversion of ╬│╬┤ T cells could lead to ╬│╬┤ T cell-targeted immunotherapies for related diseases

    T-Bet and Eomes Regulate the Balance between the Effector/Central Memory T Cells versus Memory Stem Like T Cells

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    Memory T cells are composed of effector, central, and memory stem cells. Previous studies have implicated that both T-bet and Eomes are involved in the generation of effector and central memory CD8 T cells. The exact role of these transcription factors in shaping the memory T cell pool is not well understood, particularly with memory stem T cells. Here, we demonstrate that both T-bet or Eomes are required for elimination of established tumors by adoptively transferred CD8 T cells. We also examined the role of T-bet and Eomes in the generation of tumor-specific memory T cell subsets upon adoptive transfer. We showed that combined T-bet and Eomes deficiency resulted in a severe reduction in the number of effector/central memory T cells but an increase in the percentage of CD62LhighCD44low Sca-1+ T cells which were similar to the phenotype of memory stem T cells. Despite preserving large numbers of phenotypic memory stem T cells, the lack of both of T-bet and Eomes resulted in a profound defect in antitumor memory responses, suggesting T-bet and Eomes are crucial for the antitumor function of these memory T cells. Our study establishes that T-bet and Eomes cooperate to promote the phenotype of effector/central memory CD8 T cell versus that of memory stem like T cells. ┬ę 2013 Li et al

    Apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells and interferon signaling intersect in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

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    CD8(+) T cells specific to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from apoptotic T cells represent a principal player in chronic immune activation (CIA). Here, we found that both apoptotic epitope (AE)-specific and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) T cells were mostly confined within the effector memory (EM) or terminally differentiated EM CD45RA(+) cell subsets expressing a dysfunctional T-helper-1-like signature program in chronic (c)HCV infection. However, AE-specific CD8(+) T cells produced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-╬▒ and interleukin-2 at the intrahepatic level significantly more than HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells, despite both populations acquiring high levels of programmed death-1 receptor expression. Contextually, only AE-specific CD8(+) T cells correlated with both interferon-stimulated gene levels in T cells and hepatic fibrosis score. Taken together, these data suggest that AE-specific CD8(+) T cells can sustain CIA by their capacity to produce TNF-╬▒ and be resistant to inhibitory signals more than HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells in cHCV infection

    Anti-TNF-alpha therapy induces a distinct regulatory T cell population in patients with rheumatoid arthritis via TGF-beta

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    The induction of regulatory T (T reg) cells holds considerable potential as a treatment for autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that CD4(+)CD25(hi) T reg cells isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a defect in their ability to suppress proinflammatory cytokine production by CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. This defect, however, was overcome after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibody (infliximab) therapy. Here, we demonstrate that infliximab therapy gives rise to a CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) T reg cell population, which mediates suppression via transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin 10, and lacks CD62L expression, thereby distinguishing this T reg cell subset from natural T reg cells present in healthy individuals and patients with active RA. In vitro, infliximab induced the differentiation of CD62L(-) T reg cells from CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells isolated from active RA patients, a process dependent on TGF-alpha. In spite of the potent suppressor capacity displayed by this CD62L(-) T reg cell population, the natural CD62L(+) T reg cells remained defective in infliximab-treated patients. These results suggest that anti-TNF-alpha therapy in RA patients generates a newly differentiated population of T reg cells, which compensates for the defective natural T reg cells. Therefore, manipulation of a proinflammatory environment could represent a therapeutic strategy for the induction of T reg cells and the restoration of tolerance

    Targeting fibroblast activation protein in tumor stroma with chimeric antigen receptor T cells can inhibit tumor growth and augment host immunity without severe toxicity.

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    The majority of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell research has focused on attacking cancer cells. Here, we show that targeting the tumor-promoting, nontransformed stromal cells using CAR T cells may offer several advantages. We developed a retroviral CAR construct specific for the mouse fibroblast activation protein (FAP), comprising a single-chain Fv FAP [monoclonal antibody (mAb) 73.3] with the CD8╬▒ hinge and transmembrane regions, and the human CD3╬ and 4-1BB activation domains. The transduced muFAP-CAR mouse T cells secreted IFN-╬│ and killed FAP-expressing 3T3 target cells specifically. Adoptively transferred 73.3-FAP-CAR mouse T cells selectively reduced FAP(hi) stromal cells and inhibited the growth of multiple types of subcutaneously transplanted tumors in wild-type, but not FAP-null immune-competent syngeneic mice. The antitumor effects could be augmented by multiple injections of the CAR T cells, by using CAR T cells with a deficiency in diacylglycerol kinase, or by combination with a vaccine. A major mechanism of action of the muFAP-CAR T cells was the augmentation of the endogenous CD8(+) T-cell antitumor responses. Off-tumor toxicity in our models was minimal following muFAP-CAR T-cell therapy. In summary, inhibiting tumor growth by targeting tumor stroma with adoptively transferred CAR T cells directed to FAP can be safe and effective, suggesting that further clinical development of anti-human FAP-CAR is warranted

    Regulatory T cells in melanoma revisited by a computational clustering of FOXP3+ T cell subpopulations

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    CD4+ T cells that express the transcription factor FOXP3 (FOXP3+ T cells) are commonly regarded as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg). FOXP3+ T cells are reported to be increased in tumour-bearing patients or animals, and considered to suppress anti-tumour immunity, but the evidence is often contradictory. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that FOXP3 is induced by antigenic stimulation, and that some non-Treg FOXP3+ T cells, especially memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells, produce proinflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, the subclassification of FOXP3+ T cells is fundamental for revealing the significance of FOXP3+ T cells in tumour immunity, but the arbitrariness and complexity of manual gating have complicated the issue. Here we report a computational method to automatically identify and classify FOXP3+ T cells into subsets using clustering algorithms. By analysing flow cytometric data of melanoma patients, the proposed method showed that the FOXP3+ subpopulation that had relatively high FOXP3, CD45RO, and CD25 expressions was increased in melanoma patients, whereas manual gating did not produce significant results on the FOXP3+ subpopulations. Interestingly, the computationally-identified FOXP3+ subpopulation included not only classical FOXP3high Treg but also memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells by manual gating. Furthermore, the proposed method successfully analysed an independent dataset, showing that the same FOXP3+ subpopulation was increased in melanoma patients, validating the method. Collectively, the proposed method successfully captured an important feature of melanoma without relying on the existing criteria of FOXP3+ T cells, revealing a hidden association between the T cell profile and melanoma, and providing new insights into FOXP3+ T cells and Treg
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