19,575 research outputs found

    Bouncing Water Droplet on a Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Array

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    Over the past few decades, superhydrophobic materials have attaracted a lot of interests, due to their numerous practical applications. Among various superhydrophobic materials, carbon nanotube arrays have gained enormous attentions simply because of their outstanding properties. The impact dynamic of water droplet on a superhydrophobic carbon nanotube array is shown in this fluid dynamics video.Comment: Videos include

    Flexible conformable hydrophobized surfaces for turbulent flow drag reduction

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    In recent years extensive work has been focused onto using superhydrophobic surfaces for drag reduction applications. Superhydrophobic surfaces retain a gas layer, called a plastron, when submerged underwater in the Cassie-Baxter state with water in contact with the tops of surface roughness features. In this state the plastron allows slip to occur across the surface which results in a drag reduction. In this work we report flexible and relatively large area superhydrophobic surfaces produced using two different methods: Large roughness features were created by electrodeposition on copper meshes; Small roughness features were created by embedding carbon nanoparticles (soot) into Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Both samples were made into cylinders with a diameter under 12 mm. To characterize the samples, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and confocal microscope images were taken. The confocal microscope images were taken with each sample submerged in water to show the extent of the plastron. The hydrophobized electrodeposited copper mesh cylinders showed drag reductions of up to 32% when comparing the superhydrophobic state with a wetted out state. The soot covered cylinders achieved a 30% drag reduction when comparing the superhydrophobic state to a plain cylinder. These results were obtained for turbulent flows with Reynolds numbers 10,000 to 32,500

    Exceptional Anti-Icing Performance of Self-Impregnating Slippery Surfaces

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    A heat exchange interface at subzero temperature in a water vapor environment, exhibits high probability of frost formation due to freezing condensation, a factor that markedly decreases the heat transfer efficacy due to the considerable thermal resistance of ice. Here we report a novel strategy to delay ice nucleation on these types of solid-water vapor interfaces. With a process-driven mechanism, a self-generated liquid intervening layer immiscible to water, is deposited on a textured superhydrophobic surface and acts as a barrier between the water vapor and the solid substrate. This liquid layer imparts remarkable slippery conditions resulting in high mobility of condensing water droplets. A large increase of the ensuing ice coverage time is shown compared to the cases of standard smooth hydrophilic or textured superhydrophobic surfaces. During deicing of these self-impregnating surfaces we show an impressive tendency of ice fragments to skate expediting defrosting. Robustness of such surfaces is also demonstrated by operating them under subcooling for at least 490hr without a marked degradation. This is attributed to the presence of the liquid intervening layer, which protects the substrate from hydrolyzation enhancing longevity and sustaining heat transfer efficiency.Comment: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, copyright (c) American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.7b0018

    The superhydrophobicity of polymer surfaces: Recent developments

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    Superhydrophobicity is the extreme water repellence of highly textured surfaces. The field of superhydrophobicity research has reached a stage where huge numbers of candidate treatments have been proposed and jumps have been made in theoretically describing them. There now seems to be a move to more practical concerns and to considering the demands of individual applications instead of more general cases. With these developments, polymeric surfaces with their huge variety of properties have come to the fore and are fast becoming the material of choice for designing, developing, and producing superhydrophobic surfaces. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 49: 1203–1217, 201

    Drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent pipe flow

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    The drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated in a turbulent pipe flow. Wetted superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to trap gas bubbles in their asperities. This stops the liquid from coming in direct contact with the wall in that location, allowing the flow to slip over the air bubbles. We consider a well-defined texture with streamwise grooves at the walls in which the gas is expected to be entrapped. This configuration is modeled with alternating no-slip and shear-free boundary conditions at the wall. With respect to the classical turbulent pipe flow, a substantial drag reduction is observed which strongly depends on the grooves’ dimension and on the solid fraction, i.e., the ratio between the solid wall surface and the total surface of the pipe’s circumference. The drag reduction is due to the mean slip velocity at the wall which increases the flow rate at a fixed pressure drop. The enforced boundary conditions also produce peculiar turbulent structures which on the contrary decrease the flow rate. The two concurrent effects provide an overall flow rate increase as demonstrated by means of the mean axial momentum balance. This equation provides the balance between the mean pressure gradient, the Reynolds stress, the mean flow rate, and the mean slip velocity contribution

    Change in drag, apparent slip and optimum air layer thickness for laminar flow over an idealised superhydrophobic surface

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    Analytic results are derived for the apparent slip length, the change in drag and the optimum air layer thickness of laminar channel and pipe flow over an idealised superhydrophobic surface, i.e. a gas layer of constant thickness retained on a wall. For a simple Couette flow the gas layer always has a drag reducing effect, and the apparent slip length is positive, assuming that there is a favourable viscosity contrast between liquid and gas. In pressure-driven pipe and channel flow blockage limits the drag reduction caused by the lubricating effects of the gas layer; thus an optimum gas layer thickness can be derived. The values for the change in drag and the apparent slip length are strongly affected by the assumptions made for the flow in the gas phase. The standard assumptions of a constant shear rate in the gas layer or an equal pressure gradient in the gas layer and liquid layer give considerably higher values for the drag reduction and the apparent slip length than an alternative assumption of a vanishing mass flow rate in the gas layer. Similarly, a minimum viscosity contrast of four must be exceeded to achieve drag reduction under the zero mass flow rate assumption whereas the drag can be reduced for a viscosity contrast greater than unity under the conventional assumptions. Thus, traditional formulae from lubrication theory lead to an overestimation of the optimum slip length and drag reduction when applied to superhydrophobic surfaces, where the gas is trapped

    Immersed superhydrophobic surfaces: Gas exchange, slip and drag reduction properties

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    Superhydrophobic surfaces combine high aspect ratio micro- or nano-topography and hydrophobic surface chemistry to create super water-repellent surfaces. Most studies consider their effect on droplets, which ball-up and roll-off. However, their properties are not restricted to modification of the behaviour of droplets, but potentially influence any process occurring at the solid-liquid interface. Here, we highlight three recent developments focused on the theme of immersed superhydrophobic surfaces. The first illustrates the ability of a superhydrophobic surface to act as a gas exchange membrane, the second demonstrates a reduction in drag during flow through small tubes and the third considers a macroscopic experiment demonstrating an increase in the terminal velocity of settling spheres